Japan

Geographical Setting

Japan is an island country in the North Pacific Ocean. It lies off the northeast
coast of mainland Asia and faces Russia,Korea, and China. Four large islands and
thousands of smaller ones make up Japan. The four major islands-
Hokkaido,Honshu,Kyushu and Shikoku form a curve that extends for about 1,900
kilometres.

Topography

Japan is a land of great natural beauty. mountains and hills cover about 70% of
the country. IN fact, Japanese islands consist of the rugged upper part of a
great mountain range that rises from the floor of the North Pacific Ocean.
Jagged peaks, rocky gorges, and thundering mountain waterfalls provide some of
the country\'s most spectacular scenery. Thick forests thrive on mountansides,
adding to the scenic beauty of the Japanese islands. Forests cover about 68% of
the country\'s land.

Japan lies on an extremely unstable part of the earth\'s crust. As a result, the
land is constantly shifting. This shifting causes two of Japan\'s most striking
features-- earthquakes and volcanoes. The Japanese islands have about 1500
earthquakes a year. Most of them are minor tremors that cause little damage, but
severe earthqaukes occur every few years. Underseaquakes sometimes cause huge,
destructive tidal waves, called tsunami, along Japan\'s Pacific coast. The
Japanese islands have more than 150 major volcanoes. Over 60 of these volcanoes
are active.

Numerous short, swift rivers cross Japan\'s rugged surface. most of the rivers
are too shallow and steep to be navigated. Their waters are used to irrigate
farmland, and their rapids and falls supply power for hydroelectric plants. Many
lakes nestle among the Japanese mountains. Some lie in the craters of extinct
volcanoes. A large number of hot springs gush from the ground throughout the
country. The Japanese islands have a total land area of about 337,708 sqkm. The
islands , in order of size, are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku. The sea of
Japan washes the country\'s west coast and the Pacific ocean lies to the east.

Climate

Regional climates in Japan can be compared to those of the East Coast of the
United States. Kyushu and Shikoku have a climate much like that of Perth. They
have long hot summers and mild winters. The island Honshu\'s generally has
warm,humid summers. Winters are mild in the south and cold and snowy in the
north. Honshu has balmy, sunny autumns and springs. Hokkaido has cool summers
and cold winters much like Tasmania.

Two Pacific Ocean currents--the Japan Current and the Oyashio Current--influence
Japan\'s climate. The warm, dark-blue Japan Current flows northward along the
country\'s south coast and along the east coast as far north as Tokyo. The Japan
current has a warming effect on the climate of theses regions. The cold Oyashio
Current flows southward along the east coasts of Hokkaido and northern Honshu,
cooling these areas.

Seasonal winds called monsoons also affect Japan\'s climate. In winter, monsoons
from the northwest bring cold air to northern Japan. These winds, which gather
moisture as they cross the Sea of Japan, deposit heavy snows on the country\'s
northwest coast. During the summer, monsoons blow from the southeast , carrying
warm, moist air from the pacific ocean. Summer monsoons cause hot, humid weather
in central and southern Japan.

Rain is abundant through most of Japan. All the areas of the country--except
eastern Hokkaido--recieve at least 100 centimetres of rain yearly. Japan has two
major rainy seasons--from mid-June to early July and from September to October.
Several typhoons strike the country each year, mainly in late summer and early
Autumn. The heavy rains and violent winds of these storms often do great damage
to houses and crops

Family:

The Extended Family

Family life has always been important in Japan. Before 1945, many Japanese lived
in large family units that included grandparents, parents, children, and
sometimes uncles and their families. Japanese families were bound together by a
strict set of customs. Husbands had complete authority over their wives, and
children were expected to show unquestioning obedience to their parents.
Marriage and Courtship-When a child was old enough to marry, the parents
selected a suitable marraige partner. In some cases, the bride and groom had
never met before the wedding.

The Nuclear Family Today most of the Japanese live in the style of a nuclear
family. These consist of only parents and children. The Japanese still have
strong family ties and a deep respect for authority. But since WW2 relationships
with families have become a little less formal, and more democratic.

Marriage and Courtship-Most young people now select their own marraige partners
on the basis of shared interests and mutual attraction.

Parental Roles

The parents still sometimes decide the marraige partner for their child to
marry.

Female and Male roles

Education:

Role in