The country I picked to do my report on was Italy. Italy, officially
the Italian Republic, is an independent nation in southern Europe. The word
"Italy" comes from the ancient Oscan language and means "Calf". Italy is a
fairly small, important mediteranean country of about 116,328 square miles.
Its capital city "Rome" is both the industrial center as well as the cultural
center of Italy. Romes current population is about 2,786,307 people. With the
countries over all population estimated at 57,904,628 people, at a density of
498 people per square mile. 72% of these people living in urban areas, while
28% of the population resides in rural areas. Some of Italy\'s major imports
include industrial raw materials, petroleum, meat, and cereal grains. The
principal exports are manufactured goods and craft items, along with fruits and
vegetables. Italy usually suffers a trade deficit, but the difference is
partly offset by its large and profitable tourist industry and by money sent by
Italian citizens working abroad. Italy is a country far from being land-locked,
with 9 major ports including Genoa, Trieste, Taranto, Venice, Savona, and
Naples. Italy has been historically important since Roman times, and millions
of tourists are attracted each year to its ancient cities and art treasures.
Modern Italy is an important industrial nation and a leading member of the
european community, also known as the "EC". Italy\'s principal trading partners
are other members of the EC, especially Germany and France.

Italy\'s government was originally a republic, then was a monarchy, then
a republic, then a monarchy. It was reverted back to a republic for a final
time in 1946. According to the constitution, executive power lies with the
cabinet, and legislative powers are vested in a parliament consisting of a 630-
member chamber of deputies and a 315-member senate. Except for a few life
members of the senate (including former presidents and some prominent citizens
nominated by the president), both houses are elected directly by universal
adult suffrage for 5-year terms unless dismissed earlier. The president of the
republic is head of state and is elected to a renewable 7-year term by a joint
session of Parliament and three delegates from each of the regional
legislatures. Executive power rests with the council of ministers headed by
the prime minister appointed by the president. The principal political party
is the Christian Democratic party, which has led or participated in every
government since 1945. Other major parties are the Democratic Party of the Left
(the former Communist party) and the Socialist party. Smaller political groups
include the Social Democrats, the Republicans, the Greens, the Liberals, and
the neo-Fascist Italian Social Movement.

Category: History