Intelligent Design of the

The search for knowledge about the
origin of humanity is as old as its inhabitants. Since
the early 1800\'s mankind has narrowed the debate
to creation by a Supreme Being and the theory of
evolution. Ever since then, science has been at
odds against religion. Now it appears that science
is returning to religion. Scientists are finding proof
that the universe was created by a Supreme Being.
The word evolution refers to the change of
something over a period of time(Webster\'s 634).
In biology, the theory of evolution is "the complex
of processes by which living organisms originated
on earth and have been diversified and modified
through sustained changes in form and
function"(Valentine). This theory proposes that
between 4 million and 10 million years ago, all
organisms on earth had a common ancestor and
that through a process of evolution, all living
organisms descended from this common
ancestor(Coyne). Chevalier de Lamarck, a French
naturalist proposed a theory of evolution in 1809.
His idea did not get much scientific consideration
until Charles R. Darwin announced his theory of
evolution(Coyne). Darwin published "his most
famous book, On the Origin of Species by Means
of Natural Selection"(Valentine) in 1859. Darwin
stated that offspring resemble their parents, yet
they are not exactly identical to them. He also
noted that some of these differences were not
effects of their environment, but actually were
passed down from parents to children(Valentine).
Darwin is the most well known scientist to write
on evolution. There are many different variations
on the theory of evolution. Darwin states that
natural selection is the main reason for the
evolution of life. The fight for food, water and
other necessities benefits those creatures who are
well adapted for the struggle. Those that cannot
survive, die with no offspring to continue their
genetic line. Natural selection is also called survival
of the fittest. Another related idea to evolution is
gradualism. "Gradualism is the idea that
evolutionary changes do not occur suddenly but
over large amounts of time, ranging from decades
to millions of years"(Coyne). Genetic drift is
another way that scientists define evolution. When
two of a species mate, their offspring gets 23
chromosomes from both parents. When a gene
does not split and combine correctly, a mutation
occurs. This mutation will get passed down from
the creature to its offspring. In this way a species
can permanently be changed(Coyne). Scientists
who have accepted the general theory of evolution
as fact disagree among themselves about the ratio
of importance between natural selection and
genetic drift. They also disagree about what
caused the apparent gaps in fossil layers. New
species "abruptly"(Valentine) appear in the fossil
record with no apparent mutation from another
species, then remain unchanged for long periods of
time. They do not seem to exhibit the gradual
changes that would be expected by modern
evolutionists(Valentine). Many people, including
those in the scientific community, do not accept
the theory of evolution as fact. When Darwin was
alive, his theory was attacked by many scientists
and religious leaders(Coyne). In the 1900\'s,
United States public high schools began teaching
evolution in science classes. By the 1920\'s, laws in
twenty states to ban the teaching of evolution in
public schools had been proposed by people who
did not want their children being indoctrinated.
"They considered the teaching of the theory to be
part of a dangerous trend toward the separation of
religious beliefs from everyday life"(Coyne).
Several of the proposed laws were passed into
effect in states including Arkansas and Tennessee.
"The ACLU challenged the Tennessee law in
1925 by defending a teacher named John T.
Scopes, who had volunteered to stand trial on the
charge of teaching evolution"(Coyne). The ACLU
lost the case but because of bad press, creationists
appeared ignorant to science. However, in 1968
the Supreme Court of the United States "ruled that
laws banning the teaching of evolution were
unconstitutional because they made religious
considerations part of the curriculum"(Coyne). The
courts continue to give rulings on creation and
evolution in schools, some have come as recently
as 1987(Coyne). The fight to keep evolution out
of the classroom is still persevering. Those who
are pushing to keep evolution out of the public
schools are primarily creationists. Creation is the
belief that a Supreme Being created the universe
and all its contents from nothing(Vawter). Many
different people have believed different stories of
how and why this was accomplished. Judaism,
Christianity and Islam are a few of the major faiths
that teach Creation. There are many differences in
what different people believe. Many Jews and
Christians with a literal interpretation of the Bible
or the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible,
believe that God created the universe and all that
is in it in six 24 hour days. They believe that each
species on earth has remained relatively the same
since the Creation. These people "base their
beliefs