Info Resource MGMT

1) A system is a combination of technologies, people, processes and
organizational mechanisms. An example of a system is the production of a car.
The system would combine the technologies used to create the machines that put
the car together, with the people that run the machines, the assembly line
process for building the car, and the salesman that sells the car, which creates
the original mechanism for the cars to be built.

2) Hierarchies require a vertical chain of command where lines of
responsibility do not cross and approval to proceed on major initiatives is
granted from above. This communication up and down the chain of command takes to
much time for today’s environment. Ex. The U.S. Judicial System.

3) A system is a group of parts, working together in a relationship, to
accomplish something. Anything that can be described by the above can be a
system. For example, a chair is a system of metal, screws and plastic working
together to provide a place to sit. .

4) The four categories are:

· Business computing: Almost exclusively data processing; used mostly by
controller for accounting purposes. EX. Records processing, management reporting

· Telecommunications: Outsourced to full-service vendors, which relieved
user organizations of most administrative burdens. EX. PABX, Telex, Telephones

· Specialized office products For mailrooms, reproduction centers, the
individual offices using them generally purchased records management centers,
and typing pools, although the administrative vice president usually had at
least nominal oversight responsibilities. EX. Mailing equipments, duplicators,
microfilm, and centralized word processing.

· General office products Controlled by the administrative vice president.
Consisting of small ticket items such as typewriters, answering machines,
facsimile terminals, and convenience copiers, general office products were
usually controlled broadly, via the annual budgeting mechanism. EX. Typewriters,
copiers, convenience word processors

5) Attributes:

· Procedure-based: Large-volume transactions were each transaction has a
relatively low cost or value. Activities are well defined, so the principal
performance measure is efficiency information worker is told what to accomplish
and the steps to follow. Mainly handles data

· Goal-based activities: Handle fewer transactions and each one has a higher
value. Activities accomplished in various ways, therefore measured by results or
attainment of the objectives or goals. Information worker must understand the
goals because part of the job is figuring out how to attain them. Entail
handling concepts, not data.

6) Six responsibility areas:

· Understand the business: The CIO should understand what business his
company is in. This also means that he should understand the markets that his
company sells goods and products to.

· Establish credibility of the IS department: The CIO should establish
credibility with top management by successfully maintaining current systems and
develop future systems. This increases top managements confidence in IS and
their ideas.

· Increase the technology maturity of the firm: The CIO should strive to
make upper management comfortable with managing the use of IT. He should also
make sure that the employees are comfortable using the technology. CIO can
educate the users and upper management in a way that makes both comfortable in
using the technology.

· Create a vision of the future and sell it: CIO’s need to become involved
with selling IS to upper management. This includes becoming proactive in
developing the organization vision of the future and by setting a goal for the
use of IT in the organization.

· Implement an information system: CIO’s need to implement an information
system architecture that will support the vision of the organization and help to
ensure its health by simplifying the organization operating activities.

· Develop and nurture relationships: CIO’s need to nurture relationships
with 3 different sets of partners; senior management-CEO, COO, and CFO,
customers both internal and external, and suppliers and other external partners.

7) The five waves are:

· Reducing cost. Reducing costs began in the 1960s when IT focused on
increasing productivity in the clerical and administrative functions.

· Leveraging investments. Leveraging investments began in the 1970s. It
focus was to make a more effective use of corporate assists that increase
profitability. Systems were justified on return of investment and increasing
cash flow.

· Enhancing products and services. This began in the 1980s. It was the first
time IT was used to produce revenue by gaining strategic advantages or creating
new businesses.

· Enhancing executive decision-making. This started in the late 1980s. Its
focus was to change the fundamental structure of the organization and create
real-time business management systems.

· Reaching the consumer. Using IT to interact with consumers, take the lead
in new marketing, distribution, and services started in the 1990s. This changed
the rules of competition and created new businesses on the Internet.

8) The four areas are:

· Run operations: One