Hyperkinetic Children


Hyperkinetic is just another word for Hyperactive. Hyperactivity
describes children who show numerous amounts of inappropriate behaviors in
situations that require sustained attention and orderly responding to fairly
structured tasks. Humans who are hyperactive tend to be easily distracted,
impulsive, inattentive, and easily excited or upset. Hyperactivity in children
is manifested by gross motor activity, such as excessive running or climbing.
The child is often described as being on the go or "running like a motor", and
having difficulty sitting still. Older children and adolescents may be
extremely restless or fidgety. They may also demonstrate aggressive and very
negative behavior. Other features include obstinacy, stubbornness, bossiness,
bullying, increased mood lability, low frustration tolerance, temper outbursts,
low self-esteem, and lack of response to discipline. Very rarely would a child
be considered hyperactive in every situation, just because restraint and
sustained attentiveness are not necessary for acceptable performance in many
low-structure situations. Many parents rate the onset of abnormal activity in
their child when it is and infant or toddler. Abnormal sleep patterns are
frequently mentioned, the child objects to taking naps, he also seems to need
less sleep, and becomes very stubborn at bedtime. Then, when the child is
seemingly exhausted, hyperactive behavior may increase. Family history studies
show that hyperactivity, which is more common in boys than in girls, may be a
hereditary trait, as are some other traits (reading disabilities or enuresis-bed
wetting). Certain predisposing factors affect the mother, and therefore the
child, at the time of conception or gestation or during delivery. Included are
radiation, infection, hemorrhage, jaundice, toxemia, trauma, medications,
alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine. The course of the syndrome typically spans the
6-year to 12-year age range. In many classrooms, children who display
inappropriate overactivity (restlessness, moving around without permission) ,
attention deficits (distractible by task-irrelevant events, inability to sustain
attention to the task) , and impulsivity (making decisions and responses hastily
and inaccurately, interrupting and interfering with classmates and the teachers)
are likely to be identified as hyperactive. The diagnosis of hyperactivity is
usually suggested when parents and teachers complains that a child is
excessively active, behaves poorly, or has learning difficulties. However,
there is no specific definition or precise test to confirm that a child is
hyperactive. This syndrome is most frequently recognized when the child cannot
behave appropriately in the classroom. There are three characteristic courses.
In the first, all of the symptoms persist into adolescence or adult life. In
the second, the disorder is self-limited and all of the symptoms disappear
completely at puberty. In the third, the hyperactivity disappears, but the
attentional difficulties and impulsivity persist into adolescence or adult life.
The relative frequency of the courses is unknown. The individual, accordingly,
does not grow out of the disorder. As the child passes through puberty,
aggression and restlessness may decrease, but most symptoms persist and may lead
the adolescent to develop a low self-esteem and a tendency to withdraw. The
adolescent may also manifest anti-social tendencies, for instance, lieing,
stealing, and violence, which frequently lead to delinquency. Similarly,
symptoms persist into adult life and account for social maladjustment (behavior
that violates laws or unwritten standards of the school or community, yet
conforms to the standards of some social subgroup). Attention-deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), also called attention deficit disorder (ADD), is
presently the most common condition diagnosed in hyperactive children. This
specific syndrome focuses on the child\'s inability to pay attention. This
syndrome occurs early in life (in infancy or by the age of 2 or 3 years ) is
more common in boys and may occur as many as 3 percent of prepubertal children.
A small proportion of hyperactive children have a definite history of injury to,
or disease of, the brain that preceded a change to abnormal behavior. These
children show relatively minor disabilities of coordination, reflexes,
perception, problem solving, and other behaviors often referred to as
"softsigns" of neurological disorder (brain-injured). It has not been
established, however, that brain damage or malfunction is a factor in most cases
of hyperactivity. Studies of many children who had difficulties at birth show
no connection between such difficulties and later hyperactivity. In these other
wise, normal children, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and distractibility are
variable. The syndrome has been described for many years, and these children
were previously said to have minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). In the MBD
syndrome, the behaviors of ADHD (attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity)
were combined with poor coordination, emotional instability, immature
development, perceptual difficulties, learning disabilities, language disorders,
and minor neurological abnormalities observed through medical examinations. In
most cases it is not possible to find a specific cause for hyperactivity and may
not be appropriate to try. Since hyperactivity behavior is common,