How Successful was English foreign policy 1509-152
This essay How Successful was English foreign policy 1509-152 has a total of 1767 words and 9 pages.
How Successful was English foreign policy 1509-1521?
In order to assess the success of English foreign policy we must first look at what Henry VIII was trying to achieve. Henry’s foreign policy up until 1521 can be split into three main areas; 1509-1514, 1514-1517 and 1517-1521. During the first period Henry seemed to have no other aim than to make war on France. During the second he wanted to limit France’s power by allying himself with other major European powers. Finally, between 1517-1521 he wanted to be ‘peacemaker’. All of these periods collectively point to one ‘master aim’ for Henry, that was glory. If he looked good by making war, that is what he did. If he looked good be being ‘Henry the peacemaker’, then he was.
The first period, if we accept that Henry’s aim was to make war with France and that being the attacker rather than the defender in an Anglo-French war was more important than winning, seems, on the surface, to have been a success. In 1509 he secured an alliance with Spain by marrying the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, his brother’s widow, Catherine of Aragon. in 1511, despite having renewed a peace treaty with France the year before he joined the ‘Holy League’, an anti-French alliance which included the papacy, Spain, the Empire and England herself. In 1512 the English army set sail to attack France in a joint attack with Ferdinand of Spain. The attack failed, primarily because Ferdinand failed to keep his side of the plan, instead of helping the English army in Gascony he used their invasion of France to invade Navarre, but also because the English army had inadequate supplies, it was raining and sickness struck. Henry blamed the attack on the Marquis of Dorset and other leaders and immediately began to plan a new attack on France.
In 1513 he left Catherine in charge as regent of England while he crossed over to France. While he was away the Scots did what they nearly always did when England invaded France, they invaded England. The result of this invasion was the battle of Flodden field, a disaster for the Scots as much of their nobility was killed, including their king, James IV.
Henry managed to capture the French towns of Therounne and Tournai after the ‘Battle of the Spurs’, so called because when the French army saw the English they ran away instead of fighting. This was hailed as a great success despite the fact that the French towns were of little importance to Henry and the invasion had cost an extraordinary amount. Henry’s annual income was about £120,000, between 1509 and June 1513 his Privy chamber paid out over £1,000,000. Out of this figure about 2/3 was on the war and nearly half was spent in just one week, between 5-12 June 1513.
If Henry’s main aim during this period was, as identified at the beginning, to make war on France and be the aggressor in his quest for glory, he was successful. He did make war and he was the aggressor. The failure of the 1512 invasion and the massive cost of the subsequent 1513 invasion rather dampens this idea however. It is true that he did gain the ‘prestige’ of ‘winning’ the ‘Battle of the Spurs’ and he also managed to capture two French towns, but the financial cost outweighs the gains by a long way. Superficially, during the later part of this ‘period’ Henry looked successful but in financial terms he had very definitely lost.
In 1514 Mary Tudor, Henry’s sister, married Louis XII of France. It was this act of alliance with France that marked the beginning of the second stage of Henry’s foreign policy. For a while, their marriage meant England had a truce with France, but with the death of Louis on the last day of 1914 the brief entente finished. The period 1514-1516 saw a number of countries sign peace treaties with
France, including the Treaty of Noyon in 1516 signed by the Archduke Charles of Burgundy, whilst they abandoned their treaties with England. In 1517 the Emperor Maximilian concluded the Peace of Cambrai and, in the words of Susan Doran, ‘Wolsey’s diplomacy was in shreds’. England was isolated in the field of European politics, not only were her
Topics Related to How Successful was English foreign policy 1509-152
House of Tudor, Annulment, Italian Wars, Anglo-French wars, Knights of the Garter, Thomas Wolsey, Treaty of London, Henry VIII of England, Italian War of 152126, Hundred Years War, Battle of the Spurs, Italian War of 154246
Essays Related to How Successful was English foreign policy 1509-152
The Prince And The PauperThe Prince And The Pauper The Prince and the Pauper On an autumn day in the ancient city of London, in the second quarter of sixteenth century, a boy was born to a poor family of the name Canty. On the same day another English baby was born of a rich family of the name of Tudor. There was talk in England about the new baby, Edward Tudor, Prince of Wales, who lapped in silk and satin. While on the other hand Tom Canty, who lapped in his poor rags, was seen as trouble. For fifteen years, Tom Canty
Equal PayEqual Pay Mike K. Essay on equal pay in the work place. In 1963, President Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act into law, making it unlawful to discriminate against a worker on the basis of sex. Since that time, the wage gap between men and women in the United States has narrowed by just 15 cents, now being 74 cents, as reported by the U.S. Census Bureau. Pay equality is most prevalent for the 16 to 24 age group, in which women earn more than 90 percent of what men do; however, the gap becomes 75 pe
Pay Equity Vs. Pay EqualityPay Equity Vs. Pay Equality Title: Pay Equity vs. Pay Equality Abstract: Pay Equality means equal pay for equal work, but pay equity programs throughout the world attempt to legislate and regulate the elimination of systemic gender-based wage discrimination and to ensure ongoing systems that will maintain equitable wage relationships over time. Six Pages APA Citations, Seven Sources Pay Equity vs. Pay Equality In 1963, President Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act into law, making it unlawful to di
King James IKing James I This is a paper over King James I of England that I wrote for my honors english class. I received an A on the the assignment. King James I On June 19, 1566 in Theobalds, Hertfordshire, England, Mary Queen of Scots gave birth to her only child, a boy whom she named James. James\' father was Henry Stewart, also known as Lord Darnley. Darnley was killed in an unexplained explosion at his house when James was eight months old. Only seven months later, Mary Queen of Scots had to give up
Medieval ChivalryMedieval Chivalry Western Civilization Medieval Chivalry and Knighthood During medieval times knighthood was a class culture, cherished and jealousy guarded by the knightly caste. Knight had the honor of defending the king as well as their country. On the bloody fields of battle a code of chivalry evolved that tempered anger and fury with mercy. It created ways of turning the grim business of fighting into something tolerable, perhaps even acceptable. Chivalry was not only looked upon as a code
Elizabeth IElizabeth I English II November 21, 2002 Elizabeth I by Jacob Abbott is the biographical account of Queen Elizabeth I. The story follows the birth, childhood, reign, and death of England’s beloved Virgin Queen. King Henry VIII of England is known best for his six wives (three Catherines, two Annes, and a Jane), the most famous of all being his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Henry married Anne before his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, with whom he had one daughter, Mary, was officially annulled. O
King Henry VIII's Initiation of the Protestant RefKing Henry VIII\'s Initiation of the Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation, which arose in the sixteenth century, is today known as the religious revolution that ended the ecclesiastical supremacy of the pope throughout Western Europe. The Protestant Reformation also inevitably brought about changes to Western Europe\'s way of life. The Reformation drastically altered Western Europe\'s political, economical, and cultural elements as the revolution came to a high when King Henry VIII
EnglandEngland England (Latin Anglia), political division of the island of Great Britain, constituting, with Wales, the principal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. England occupies all of the island east of Wales and south of Scotland, another division of the United Kingdom. Established as an independent monarchy many centuries ago, England in time achieved political control over the rest of the island, all the British Isles, and vast sections of the world, becoming
Tower of LondonTower of London The Tower of London has a very interesting story behind it. A man, who was not even English, William of Normandy began it. At the time he was the cousin of England\'s Kind Edward. It all started because William became outraged when Edward backed down on his promise to give the throne to William and ended up giving the throne to his English brother-in-law, Harold. William sailed his army across the English Channel to conquer England. On October 14, 1066, he met Harold at Hastings
Robert BoyleRobert Boyle The English scene of the seventeenth century is a particularly rich one with regard to its contributions to the scientific revolution. The discovery and development of America moved Britain from the edge of the civilized world into the center of the new world, in which the sciences were to play a major role. During this period, in the field of chemistry, theories which offered direct opposition to Aristotelian natural philosophy and Paracelsian principles were rapidly disseminating.
Edgar Allan PoeEdgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston, grew up in Richmond, Virginia, and in his many restless moves, lived in half a dozen Eastern cities. His true home was always in the misty mid region of Weir of his own fertile and troubled imagination. His father was David Poe, a Baltimore actor. His actress mother, Elizabeth, born of English parents, had come to the United States as a child. The two were not notably talented; they played minor roles in rather third-rate theatrical companies
Elizabeth Hanford DoleElizabeth Hanford Dole Elizabeth Hanford Dole has surpasses any expectations ever set upon her by friends and family, yet she is still faced with her perfectionist ways that led her to many years in public service for the United States (Bio). She is a profound, intellectual, over-accomplished woman who has let nothing stand in her way of getting what she wants. Elizabeth has spend almost three decades in the public’s view, she has no children, no house, and no one knows her well. She put her car