Holograms


Toss a pebble in a pond -see the ripples? Now drop two pebbles close
together. Look at what happens when the two sets of waves combine -you get a
new wave! When a crest and a trough meet, they cancel out and the water goes
flat. When two crests meet, they produce one, bigger crest. When two troughs
collide, they make a single, deeper trough. Believe it or not, you\'ve just
found a key to understanding how a hologram works. But what do waves in a
pond have to do with those amazing three-dimensional pictures? How do
waves make a hologram look like the real thing?

It all starts with light. Without it, you can\'t see. And much like the
ripples in a pond, light travels in waves. When you look at, say, an apple,
what you really see are the waves of light reflected from it. Your two eyes
each see a slightly different view of the apple. These different views
tell you about the apple\'s depth -its form and where it sits in relation to
other objects. Your brain processes this information so that you see the apple,
and the rest of the world, in 3-D. You can look around objects, too -if the
apple is blocking the view of an orange behind it, you can just move your
head to one side. The apple seems to "move" out of the way so you can
see the orange or even the back of the apple. If that seems a bit
obvious, just try looking behind something in a regular photograph!
You can\'t, because the photograph can\'t reproduce the infinitely complicated
waves of light reflected by objects; the lens of a camera can only focus those
waves into a flat, 2-D image. But a hologram can capture a 3-D image so
lifelike that you can look around the image of the apple to an orange in the
background -and it\'s all thanks to the special kind of light waves produced
by a laser.

"Normal" white light from the sun or a lightbulb is a combination
of every colour of light in the spectrum -a mush of different waves that\'s
useless for holograms. But a laser shines light in a thin, intense beam that\'s
just one colour. That means laser light waves are uniform and in step. When
two laser beams intersect, like two sets of ripples meeting in a pond,
they produce a single new wave pattern: the hologram. Here\'s how it happens:
Light coming from a laser is split into two beams, called the object beam
and the reference beam. Spread by lenses and bounced off a mirror, the object
beam hits the apple. Light waves reflect from the apple towards a photographic
film. The reference beam heads straight to the film without hitting the
apple. The two sets of waves meet and create a new wave pattern that hits the
film and exposes it. On the film all you can see is a mass of dark and light
swirls -it doesn\'t look like an apple at all! But shine the laser
reference beam through the film once more and the pattern of swirls bends the
light to re-create the original reflection waves from the apple -exactly.

Not all holograms work this way -some use plastics instead of
photographic film, others are visible in normal light. But all holograms are
created with lasers -and new waves.

All Thought Up and No Place to Go

Holograms were invented in 1947 by Hungarian scientist Dennis Gabor,
but they were ignored for years. Why? Like many great ideas, Gabor\'s theory
about light waves was ahead of its time. The lasers needed to produce clean
waves -and thus clean 3-D images -weren\'t invented until 1960. Gabor coined
the name for his photographic technique from holos and gramma, Greek for "the
whole message. " But for more than a decade, Gabor had only half the words.
Gabor\'s contribution to science was recognized at last in 1971 with a Nobel
Prize. He\'s got a chance for a last laugh, too. A perfect holographic portrait
of the late scientist looking up from his desk with a smile could go on
fooling viewers into saying hello forever. Actor Laurence Olivier has also
achieved that kind of immortality -a hologram of the 80 year-old can be
seen these days on the stage in London, in a musical called Time.

New Waves

When it comes to looking at the future uses of holography, pictures are
anything but the whole picture. Here are just a couple of the