History Repeats Itself

History repeats itself. This concept applies not only within the realm
of a singular nation\'s history but throughout and between nations. That is to
say, that what one nation endures, throughout its economic and political history,
may be compared to and be strikingly similar to that of many other nations. As
we analyze social change thought the world we have noticed a cyclical pattern of
histories, both economic and political, in the countries of Spain, Holland,
Britain, and the United States.

I. Historical Periodization:

Throughout history and during alternating time periods, countries have
grown from feeble entities, defeated by or ruled by the governing structures of
foreign nations, to powerful nations. Between the fifteenth and the sixteenth
century, SPAIN ruled as a great power among other nations. Its empire began
when, in 1492, Spain financed Columbus\'s expeditions and explorations to conquer
territory in the New World. Once it held its new established territory, Spain
relied on the influx of gold and silver from the New World. Spain was the first
country to start an empire and consequently started a trend. Once HOLLAND
gained their independence from Spanish rule, at the beginning of the seventeenth
century, it moved on to become a great power. Holland had relied on seafaring
and the economic success of Amsterdam until around 1620. "By mid-century,
however, they had used their technical sophistication and control of vital raw
commodities to build successful industries . . . and supported by Holland\'s
bourgeois virtues, trading preeminence and credit, Dutch manufactures soon
dominated a number of European markets" (BP 198). Holland remained in power
until its decline began in the middle of the eighteenth century. In 1750, the
Dutch started losing European markets but continued as the number one market
country in Europe. The British moved in where the Dutch had been. GREAT
BRITAIN reached great heights in the middle of the eighteenth century. Starting
out as the home of the Industrial Revolution, Britain was considered the
workshop of the world. However, by the 1890\'s Britain was losing ground in the
global market of manufacturing, specifically to the United States and Germany.
The UNITED STATES, is the youngest of the nations studied in this essay, which
became a major power at the end of World War I, and since then has experienced
both increases and declines in power. Since the 1920\'s until present day The
United States has moved from an agricultural society to an industrial society as
many moved from the rural areas into the urban areas and the cities.

II. Geographic Scope:

When it was an empire, SPAIN had control over many countries, including
South America, Mexico, Latin America, and the Philippines. Not only did Spain
conquer new land during its zenith, but it combined much of Europe under one
rule as the Hapsburg Empire when it united the crowns of Castile, Leon, and
Aragon. "Besides opening much of America, sixteenth-century Spain was also
ruling a Hapsburg empire that extended beyond the Iberian Peninsula to Flanders,
Germany, Austria and Italy," during its rapid internationalization (BP 216).
After the union of the Spanish crowns and the rise of the Hapsburg Empire,
Madrid experienced a major increase in its population, as what often occurs when
a new world political capital comes into existence. "The new imperial capital
mushroomed from a population of 4,000 in 1530 to 35,000 in 1594 and at least
100,000 in the mid-1600\'s before fading again when the great days were over" (AC
31). While the Dutch was in war with Spain it accepted various kinds of
people,such as the Jews and the Huguenots, and eventually acquired a vast empire.
Although HOLLANDS realm was comparably smaller to that of Spains, its domain
included the United Provinces, New York, New Amsterdam, and the East Indies.
"The purest governmental culture was in the Hague, which, after quadrupling its
population, was the only major Dutch city to continue growing during the
nation\'s decline in the mid- and late-eighteenth century" (AC 64). The empire
of GREAT BRITAIN is unparalleled by any other in that it encompassed one fourth
of the world. Its numerous English-speaking colonies, which come from around
the world, include Canada, British Australia, India, and New Zealand. The Realm
of the UNITED STATES is vast and was acquired when the land on the continent was
taken from the Native Americans and redistributed.

III. Impact of The Political Order on The Economic Order:

A political order is composed of those institutions within which people
gain, wield and influence distributions of power and an economic order is
composed of those institutions within which people organize land, labor, and
capital for the production and