Globalization


Globalization is trade, investment, people, and information traveling across international boarders. According to Berndt and Muse 2004, “globalization connects a number of countries and people with one another, which can promote greater stability, but also tends toward worldwide instability because of the problems of one country or corporation carry over to others” (p.352). The problems facing globalization are numerous. An example of a contradiction is shown in the official website of the WTO-10 benefits (http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/10ben_e/10b00_e.htm) and the pamphlet for the 1999 Seattle protests against the WTO (p.388-394). The booklet lists that one of the benefits of this trade system is more growth and jobs. In the Seattle pamphlet it states that many US workers lose their jobs due to WTO imports.


The 10 benefits of the WTO trading system is a booklet that explains how the system is good for the economy and countries. The WTO 10 benefits lists reasons why the system works. The purpose of the booklet is to inform people who know little about the WTO. The Seattle pamphlet is a guide written and published by working group on WTO/MAI (July 1999). This pamphlet was written to inform citizens about the WTO and what affect it has on US workers.


The WTO booklet tries to reflect the complex and dynamic nature of trade. It highlights some benefits that can come from the WTO system. The WTO claims to promote peace, settle disputes, and offer growth and jobs, etc. According to WTO, the system is, “helping trade flow more smoothly.” They proclaim to mediate conflict among countries by reassuring confidence. “When governments are confident that others will not rise their trade barriers, they will not be tempted to do the same.” The system also allows disputes to be handled constructively. They argue that more trade leads to more conflict. With organizations, in particular the WTO, countries can turn to them to settle their trade disputes. The WTO focuses any disputes toward the rules. The reason for the rules is so that countries can concentrate on complying with them. Later negotiating the rules if needed. Therefore countries don’t turn on each other. The booklet also states that trade has the potential to promote jobs. Trade boosts economic growth and economic growth means more jobs. Often, job prospects are better in companies involved in trade. And those jobs tend to be better paid with more security.


The WTO protests in Seattle pamphlet is fighting for fair trade. The pamphlet explains to citizens what the WTO is. They give insight on what the organization is based on, stating that it has little to do with the free trade philosophy. They argue decisions affecting the economy are confined to the private sector, while social and environmental costs are borne by the public. This pamphlet claims that the WTO hurts US workers. They state that more than 10,000 high-wage, high-tech workers in the US steel industry lost their jobs when US factories laid-off workers in response to a surge of imports from Japan, Russia, and Brazil. The import surge was created by the organizations, which pushed countries to increase their exports to US as a way to get out of financial crisis. When the workers asked the President for emergency help, he refused stating that the WTO rules forbid such action. They argue that the rules of WTO are being created where corporations have all the rights, and governments have al the obligation. And there is lack of a democratic system. They argue that in decision-making, the WTO has no intent to the protect workers, the environment, or even human rights. They urge that the organization is set up to control countries trading. Leaving the countries with only three options, change their laws to conform to the WTO requirements, pay permanent compensation to the winning country, or face non-negotiated trade sanctions.


The WTO booklet argues by giving examples such as World War 2 and the Great Depression. Stating that these such instances could have been avoided with an organization like WTO in affect. They affirm facts created by surveys took from the effects of WTO. Their argument is appealing to evidence. They use facts, observations, and experimental data, to back up their argument. The Seattle Pamphlet however uses appeal to emotion to back up