This essay Ghb and what it has a total of 2369 words and 12 pages.
ghb and what it
GHB, or gamma-hydroxybutyrate, is a nutrient that is part of the metabolism
process in mammalians. It can be found in every cell of the human body. The
greatest quantities can be found in the kidney, heart, skeletal muscles, and
brown fat tissues (Chin and Kreutzer, 1992). Chin and Kruetzer also believe it
to be a neurotransmitter, however that has not yet been proven. GHB is known to
be a metabolite and also a precursor of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA
(gamma-aminobutyric acid). GHB and GABA have a close structural relationship,
but GHB does not act on GABA receptor sites.
GHB was first synthesized about thirty years ago. A french researcher, Dr. H.
Laborit, was exploring the effects of GABA in the brain. Laborit had to
synthesize GHB because very little or no GABA crosses the blood-brain barrier.
The difference in the two allowed GHB to cross this barrier where some of it is
metabolized into GABA (Vickers, 1969).
What happened was GHB exhibited a range of effects beyond what was expected
from GABA. In the years to follow, the effects of GHB have been extensively
researched. It has come to be used in Europe as a general anesthetic, a
treatment for narcolepsy, an aid in child birth, and also as a treatment for
alcoholism and withdrawal syndrome. Then in the 80\'s, it was available over the
counter in health food stores. It was used by body builders for its ability to
stimulate growth hormone release which aided in fat reduction and muscle
building. However, in the last few years it has become a popular recreational
drug. It gives a pleasant, alcohol like, hangover free "high" with
For the thirty years prior to 1990, all research papers on GHB were unanimous
in reporting numerous beneficial physiological effects and the absence of long
term negative effects. Vickers called it "a truly nontoxic hypnotic"
and emphasized its "lack of toxicity." Vickers also showed evidence
that GHB demonstrates "no toxic effects on the liver and kidney." As
recent as 1989, the consensus was unchanged. Gallimberti\'s study from that year
on its uses in treating alcohol withdrawal in humans notes that "GHB\'s
action...seems to be without serious side effects." Gallimberti\'s reference
to the "safety of GHB" shows how well-established this property of the
nutrient had become.
Then, on November 8, 1990, the FDA banned the over the counter sale of GHB in
the United States. In 1991, two scientists from the California Department of
Health Services wrote a report on ten "poisonings" associated with GHB.
Chin and Kreutzer had warned of GHB\'s potential for abuse. They observed that
"all interviewed patients reported a pleasurable sensation or a ‘high\'.
Several of them..continued taking [GHB] because it made them ‘feel
If the ten "poisonings" are looked at more closely, four involved
"unknown doses," four featured the "coingestion" of other
drugs, (usually alcohol), one involved unmedicated epilepsy, and another a
history of grand mal seizures. Since alcohol and other central nervous system
depressants are not recommended with GHB, and because it is contraindicated for
epileptics, such cases are not unexpected.
One point of the of the poisonings needs to be addressed--the use of the
terms "coma" and "seizures" are used in the description of
these ten cases. If a high dose of GHB is consumed it can cause clonus, a rapid,
rhythmic contraction and relaxation of muscles which would be better described
as muscle spasm or uncontrollable twitching than a seizure. GHB has also been
known to cause intense drowsiness, abrupt sedation, and deep sleep which is
probably better described as unarrousability or deep sedation rather than coma.
The authors of these ten reports confirmed that "there have not been any
reported deaths" and that "if product use is discontinued, full
recovery with no long term side effects is universal."
Some of the concerns that are related with GHB are some of the side effects
that are present when large doses are consumed. A dose twice the recommended for
relaxation can put you to sleep in a very short amount of time after
consumption. In this respect it is similar to alcohol: if you drink twice as
much as you normally would, you probably wouldn\'t function very well.
Most of the people that take it find that it gives a pleasant state of
relaxation and tranquility. There can also be feelings of placidity, sensuality,
mild euphoria, and can also give a tendency to talk. Worries tend to fade into
feelings of emotional warmth, well being, and pleasant drowsiness. The morning
after is unlike that of alcohol or other drugs that induce similar feelings.
Most people claim to feel refreshed and even energized
Topics Related to Ghb and what it
Neurotransmitters, GHB, Drug culture, Hydroxy acids, Sedatives, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Henri Laborit, Recreational drug use, GABA receptor, GHB receptor, Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Essays Related to Ghb and what it
Methamphetamine: Built for Speed?Methamphetamine: Built for Speed? Methamphetamine has reclaimed a place in the lexicon of party drugs. Hailed by nocturnal adventurers, condemned by raver idealists, is speed a sleepless dream or an addictive nightmare? by Brian Otto Here at the end of the millennium, the pace of modern life seems fleeting -- a whirl of minutes, hours and days. In dealing with the changes, humans have equipped themselves with the tools to move faster, more efficiently. At the same time a dependence for the mar
ObesityObesity America has become a society obsessed with appearance, especially weight. We are conditioned at a young age to believe the only way to be normal is to be thin. This norm is projected to millions of Americans each day through television, magazines, billboards and every other form of media and advertising. How are people to know acceptance and happiness with themselves and others when our culture propagates what the perfect body should be. It is the search for the elusive, perfect body tha
The Dawn of a New Age: PCPThe Dawn of a New Age: PCP April, 1956 : The pharmaceutical company Parke & Davis first synthesize what they believe to be the perfect anesthetic (Souza, 1995). When administered to patients, it causes a completely dissociative state, with no significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression. Patients appear to be awake, eyes open, breathing normally.but are unaware of their surroundings or the procedures being performed upon them (Souza, 1995). Indeed, this is the perfect drug. Unfortunately
Attention Deficit DisorderAttention Deficit Disorder Chris Brown English 102: section 6 May 3, 1996 Approximately 3-5% of all American children have an Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a leading cause of school failure and under-achievement. ADD characteristics often arise in early childhood. As many as 50% of children with ADD are never diagnosed. Boys significantly outnumber girls, though girls are more likely to be undiagnosed with ADD. ADD is not an attention disorder, but a disorder of impulse control ( Sem
Can Genetics Cause Crime?Can Genetics Cause Crime? Introduction to Criminal Justice System Dr. Mike Carlie Are genetic factors more likely to make one person perform violent acts? Many doctors and researchers in the field of genetics have searched for a answer to this question. During 1989-93 one such researcher named Dr. Sullivan found some interesting points about genetics and crime. Sullivan while working for the Bush administration’s secretary of health and human services during 1989-1993 was appalled by the epidemi
Tourette's DisorderTourette\'s Disorder Table of Contents Tourette Syndrome And Other Tic Disorders Definitions of Tic Disorders Differential Diagnosis Symptomatology Associated Behaviors and Cognitive Difficulties Etiology Stimulant Medications Epidemiology and Genetics Non-Genetic Contributions Clinical Assessment Of Tourette Syndrome Treatment Of Tourette Syndrome Monitoring Reassurance Pharmacological Treatment of Tourette Syndrome Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Family Treatment Genetic Counseling Academic and Oc
The Genetics of ViolenceThe Genetics of Violence Introduction We, in the 1990’s, are slowly and inevitably being faced with the sociological and biological implications of impending genetic power. This power is analytical, in such cases as the Human Genome Project, which will hopefully succeed in mapping out the genetic code for the entire human genetic composition. Moreover, this power is preventative and participatory in that it can be, and is being, used to control the behavior of humans and other animals. This new
The Results of AgingThe Results of Aging Prepared for Ms. Ferguson Mark Trolley Abstract This report presents several aspects of aging. The report looks at a number of theories of why we age, the physical and mental changes we undergo as we age, and several ways of caring for the elderly. TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.............................................iii INTRODUCTION......................................................1 THEORIES OF WHY WE AGE............................................2 Geneti
Tourette SyndromeTourette Syndrome Tourette Syndrome was named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described the syndrome in 1885. Although the disease was identified in 1885, today in 1996, there still is a mystery surrounding Tourette Syndrome, its causes and possible cures. Tourette Syndrome is a neurological disorder that researchers believe is caused by and abnormal metabolism of the neurotransmitters dopamire and serotonin. It is genetically transmitted from parent to child. There is a fifty perce
Expansion on the Recent Discoveries Concerning NitExpansion on the Recent Discoveries Concerning Nitric Oxide as presented by Dr. Jack R. Lancaster Nitric Oxide, or NO, its chemical representation, was until recently not considered to be of any benefit to the life processes of animals, much less human beings. However, studies have proven that this simple compound had an abundance of uses in the body, ranging from the nervous system to the reproductive system. Its many uses are still being explored, and it is hoped that it can play an active rol
Eating disorderseating disorders 11-20-00 Women’s Health I wrote this essay to a friend of mine who I think falls under the category of either Anorexia or Bulimia. I felt that this was my way of helping her cure her problem and educate her on problems that can arise while under this condition. This was my way of giving back what I have read while doing this paper and the information I have taken in during Women’s Health. Anorexia and Bulimia Anorexia and Bulimia are serious, functional eating disorders. There a
AggressionAggression Aggression is a critical part of animal existence, which is an inherent driving force to humans, as we, too, are animals. The source of aggression within humans is a long summative list, but before trying to understand its source one must apply a working definition of aggression. Aggressive behavior is defined by Encyclopedia Britannica as any action of an animal that serves to injure an opponent or prey animal or to cause an opponent to retreat. (7) David G. Myers states that aggress
PsychologyPsychology INTRODUCTION The study of the way people think and behave is called psychology. The field of psychology has a number of sub-disciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior. Social psychology, for example, deals with human thought and action in a social context, while physiological psychology is concerned with thought and behavior at the level of neurology. Another division of psychology, comparative psychology compares the thought an
Acupunctureacupuncture ACUPUNCTURE A Chinese medical technique; acupuncture is a medicine originating in the orient over four-thousand years ago. Used primarily for pain relief, but also in curing disease and general health improvement. Oriental Medicine views (illness and pain) as an imbalance of one\'s energy. With Acupuncture the energetic balance can be restored, thus helping the body to rid itself of disease. Often illnesses can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Acupuncture consists of inser
Phencyclidine: The Dawn of a New AgePhencyclidine: The Dawn of a New Age April, 1956 : The pharmaceutical company Parke & Davis first synthesize what they believe to be the perfect anesthetic (Souza, 1995). When administered to patients, it causes a completely dissociative state, with no significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression. Patients appear to be awake, eyes open, breathing normally.but are unaware of their surroundings or the procedures being performed upon them (Souza, 1995). Indeed, this is the perfect drug. Unf
ADHDADHD ADHD “ ADHD, a disorder beginning in childhood, characterized by a persistent inability to sit still, focus attention on specific tasks, and control impulses,” contributed by Michael Woods to Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common mental disorders of childhood. Many children grow out of ADHD by adolescent or adult years, but many do not. Studies show ADHD in adulthood is more severe and may cause long term effects. Diagnosing ADHD
Abnormal Psychology: Mental DisordersAbnormal Psychology: Mental Disorders Andrew Walters Schizophrenia http://www.mentalhealth.com/book/p40-sc02.html#Head_1 Schizophrenia is a disorder that can effect anyone. It is the greatest the greatest disorder that effects teenagers. When someone is effected by the disorder it is not just that one person that has to learn to deal with it, the families of the patients must also learn to deal with it. There are many possible causes for the disorder with many doctors believing that there is mor
AcupunctureAcupuncture A Chinese medical technique; acupuncture is a medicine originating in the orient over four-thousand years ago. Used primarily for pain relief, but also in curing disease and general health improvement. Oriental Medicine views (illness and pain) as an imbalance of one\'s energy. With Acupuncture the energetic balance can be restored, thus helping the body to rid itself of disease. Often illnesses can be diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Acupuncture consists of inserting hair th
Explaining A ConceptExplaining A Concept BIPOLAR DISORDER 1 Bipolar Disorder, often called Manic Depression, is a medical condition that involves severe mood swings in an individual. It is a lifetime condition that needs to be treated to keep it in remission (APA). It is not just a mental illness, but a medical disease involving the brain. 2 The disease progresses as the years pass and the frequency of mood changing episodes becomes more frequent (MHN). Bipolar Disorder involves depressive and manic phases. With th
Discuss the causes of psychological disturbances iDiscuss the causes of psychological disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. In order to address the above the request it is important to define Parkinson’s disease; it’s known causes and main physiological symptoms. Many sufferers of PD experience cognitive and mental dysfunctions from a long list. The causes of such deficits are being debated to a great extent. There is no clear conclusion that states they are caused by chemical changes in the brain associated with PD or if the stressors of living
SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Schizophrenia, severe mental illness characterized by a variety of symptoms, including loss of contact with reality, bizarre behavior, disorganized thinking and speech, decreased emotional expressiveness, and social withdrawal. Usually only some of these symptoms occur in any one person. The term schizophrenia comes from Greek words meaning split mind. However, contrary to common belief, schizophrenia does not refer to a person with a split personality or multiple personality. (For
Bipolar DisorderBipolar Disorder Block: 5 10-25-02 Bipolar disorder is a fairly common disease among people today. Bipolar can be simply explained as an inability to control extreme mood changes. Bipolar has many contributing factors and is a very serious disease that can lead to death if untreated. Bipolar disorder occurs in 75% more women than men. Usually bipolar disorder can begin as early as age 5-6, but the average surface age is around 30. Bipolar only has a lifetime prevalence of 1.2%, meaning that only
Book Report on The Human BrainBook Report on The Human Brain the human brain is a thin little book packed with information about this mysterious and amazing three-pound organ. Greenfield\'s descriptions of disorders of the brain such as alzheimers Disease, Parkinsons Disease and amnesia, are excellent. Her discussion about addictive drugs and the neurotransmitters they mimic and those they affect is also very clear. I especially appreciated her explanation of action potentials and synapses. After reading the book I felt I ha
Pituitary GlandPituitary Gland The pituitary also referred to, as the “master gland of the body” is a double lobed endocrine gland. The pituitary gland secretes several hormones, which regulate bodily processes, including growth, reproduction and numerous metabolic activities. It is located in a cavity of the sphenoid bone, below the hypothalamus, at the base of the brain. The lobes of the pituitary are as distinct in function as they are in position and tissue type. The posterior lobe is made up of an out gro
IS PROZAC SAFE?IS PROZAC SAFE? Depression is decrease in functional activity, reduction in power, activity, or a deep dejection of spirit characterized by withdrawal (Funk and Wagnalls Dictionary, 359). It breaks lives apart. Depression hurts the person who is depressed and also the people who love them. When a person is clinically depressed, one thing that can happen is the level of serotonin, a brain chemical, may drop. People may have trouble sleeping, feel unusually sad or irritable, find it hard to concen
Vitamin BVitamin B Vitamin B6 is one of the most active of the B vitamins, taking part in many metabolic functions. These functions include releasing glycogen from the liver when our muscles need extra energy. B6 also assists in the metabolism of protein. Recently research has shown B6 to be essential in the regulatory functions of the female reproductive system via it\'s role in hormone production. In both men and women B6 has proven to be beneficial in preventing cardiac problems . And, studies show th
Drug AbuseDrug Abuse this study guide is a suggestion on which areas to focus on for the midterm; ask your TA if you have questions or need clarification! terms that are *ed are those which require knowing the definition of the term only, unless otherwise noted items not listed on the study guide will NOT be covered on the exam Chapters 1 & 2 material · psychoactive drug* Having effects on thoughts, emotions or behavior · the four pharmacological revolutions 1. Vaccines – Pasteur, Jenner, and Koch – Convi
Sensory ReceptorsSensory Receptors Whether we realize it or not, sensory receptors play a big part in our everyday life. Without the ability to sense our outside surroundings, we would quickly be put at a disadvantage to those around us. It is often taken for granted, but every facet of life depends on the ability to sense things. From the time when we first hear our alarm clock in the morning, to getting our balance once we get out of bed, then having to see the way to get to the bathroom, and even being able t
Obessive Complusive DisorderObessive Complusive Disorder While the causes of OCD are unknown there are many good educated guesses. OCD has been shown to run in families, so possibly a deficient gene is passed from generation to generation. Behavioral scientists believe that unusually and excessively rigid childhood family relationships might be a factor. OCD patients, through tests and PET scans have been shown to have difficulty regulating the neurotransmitter serotonin. Serotonin has been associated with functions such a
SchizophreniaSchizophrenia Does anyone ever think they hear voices fighting for control of their mind or telling them what to do? Does anyone hallucinate constantly or feel that people are following them and trying to kill them? If an individual matches this description, they might need schizophrenic treatment. Schizophrenia is a brain disease that has torn apart the lives of many with its unknown causes leaving few treatments and no cures. Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder which is a separation bet
AutismAutism December 7,1999 Human Lifespan Human Lifespan December 7, 1999 Autism According to Sternberg (1995), autism is a syndrome of childhood characterized by a lack of social relationship, a lack of communication abilities, and highly restricted range of interest. Autism is also known as pervasive development disorder (PDD). Children who are autistic also lack in intellectual development. Autism occurs in 0.04% of the population and it is also four times more likely to occur in boys as in girls
CocaineCocaine Cocaine use, even a single experiment, can cost a person their life. It can cause sudden heart irregularities, convulsions, and heart attacks in otherwise young people. This addicting drug originated in the slopes of the Andes from a plant called the coca plant. Cocaine delivers a feeling of power and control better than any drug. Cocaine comes from a plant called the coca plant. It is grown now in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia where it is refined and sent to the US 1300 years ago the leav
DopamineDopamine Why did Gaylon (not her real name) wish she never accepted the casinos invitation to dinner? This housewife believes if she didn\'t go she never would have become addicted to gambling - an addiction that ruined her life. Gaylon turned to prostitution, drove her recovering husband back into alcoholism and stole $30,000 from her children. Rafael Rios seemed to have everything going for him. He graduated from Harvard Law School and joined a prestigious law firm in Chicago. Yet, for 18 year
Attention Deficit DisorderAttention Deficit Disorder What is Attention Deficit Disorder? How is it treated? Can it be treated with medicine and, if so, is the medication safe? Why has it been so highly publicized lately? Why are so many people being diagnosed, and why is this disorder suddenly growing at such an overwhelming rate? Where was this disorder twenty or even ten years ago? Over the past decade, A.D.D., or rather its diagnosis, has become one of the most rapidly growing disorders among children and adults, not
MescalineMescaline Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine), most commonly known as Peyote, is a Schedule I Controlled Drug and is classified as a hallucinogen. The chemical formula is [(CH3 O)3 C6 H2 CH2 CH2 NH2 ], and it effects the brain by interfering with the normal functions of such neurotransmitters as serotonin. These effects are found mostly in the brain stem, where the neurons are particularly effected by hallucinogens. Duration of it’s effects last about twelve hours. Mescaline is commonly f
Attention Deficit DisorderAttention Deficit Disorder ABSTRACT Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is most commonly diagnosed in children. Criminals with antisocial personality disorder are now also being diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. People with ADD primarily function out of the right side of the brain instead of both sides. ADD symptoms include fidgeting and not paying attention. Reactions to food can cause symptoms flare up. The Feingold Program helps to eliminate foods and drinks that bring out these symptom
Alzheimer's DiseaseAlzheimer\'s Disease Abstract Paragraph Alzheimer\'s disease had not been discovered until recently. Not much is known about this disease, and today many people are affected by it. It definitely is a social problem in the United States today. In the following paper I hope to give insight as to what is known about the disease. Who is affected by it, and what can be done to fight this terrible thing that only seems to be getting worse. Review of Sources Webster 1989 Brooks 1987 Worsnop 1992 Caroll
GCSE Biology AQA GCSE Biology Unit 1 Summary Notes 11.1 Internal Control The Nervous System The nervous system enables humans to react to their surroundings and coordinate their behaviour. 0-14477 Information from receptors passes along cells (called neurones) in nerves to the brain. Nerve impulses are electrical signals that travel along neurones. Nerve impulses travel at high speed. Receptors detect stimuli which include light, sound, changes in position, chemicals, touch, pressure, pain and temperature.
Interpretation - Engagement requires DIRECT talks T Interpretation - Engagement requires DIRECT talks - means both governments must be involved Crocker 9 [9/13/09, Chester A. Crocker is a professor of strategic studies at the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, was an assistant secretary of state for African affairs from 1981 to 1989. Terms of Engagement, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/14/opinion/14crocker.html?_r=1 ] PRESIDENT OBAMA will have a hard time achieving his foreign policy goals until he masters some key term
PART 1: Please answer all of the questions. You ca PART 1: Please answer all of the questions. You can alter the spaces provided for answers in any way that you wish. (2000-word limit for the whole assignment, excluding references and reference list). Question 1 The picture below shows the changes the membrane potential at one point on an axon just before and then when an action potential is generated: The resting potential of a neurone is maintained by the unequal distribution of ions inside and outside of the plasma membrane, explain: Two par