1. Freud defines three stages of sexuality, the oral, the anal and the oedipal stage. An infant in its
oral stage learns that there is an external world through pleasure and pain. Human nature is
governed by the pleasure principle. When the infant is being breast fed he/she feels pleasure and
when pulled away from the breast the baby feels pain. The pleasure principle is a way of seeking
pleasure in order to avoid pain. We can’t be happy all the time because three things threaten us.
First of all our own bodies can’t handle too much pleasure at once, eventually our bodies get older
and death is inevitable. Second, natural phenomenon’s get in our way, and third our relationships
with others. We are emotionally dependent on others and when we take their words into
consideration we become unhappy. Since we can’t be happy all the time we need to learn how to
avoid pain. There are five ways we can avoid pain. We can become hedonistic and gain pleasure at
all costs all the time. This way of avoiding pain isn’t really possible due to the fact that we
wouldn’t be able to accomplish anything else in our lives. Second way of avoiding pain is by
voluntary isolation. A person can take him/herself out of society and become a hermit. They do not
deal with people on an emotional or personal level. The third way of avoiding pain is turning away
from the world, the libidinal energy is turned inward and used up by them when they create art and
literature. Forth is by working in groups and forming memberships. Groups are formed for
protection against brute force and have allowed us to conquer nature. The fifth way is by
influencing the organism. The individual wants to kill off all instincts and does this either by using
drugs and alcohol, or using eastern techniques such as yoga. Freud said that another basic way to
avoid pain is love. Sexual love is the most intense form of feeling pleasure. All forms of pleasure
are related to sexual love. The sublimation of love can be between brother and sister and also can
exist between friends. Along with love comes the appreciation of beauty and it is related to the
sexual feeling that is part of our libido. Civilization can not do without beauty even though
everyone has his or her own interpretation of what is considered beautiful. Freud describes the
origin of civilization through four different time periods. First in Time A, which is the time of the
primal male, the male is brutish, ape-like and is governed by the pleasure principle. The male needs
to gain genital pleasure no matter the consequences so he begins to associate pleasure with one
woman. The male wants to keep this woman close to him and therefore he also has to keep their
children. The woman stays with him for the protection he provides for her and the children. Only
the male can determine who will and will not receive pleasure. The reason why this family is
formed is because the forceful male wants pleasure and he needs the children to do the work that
he is not willing to do. The primal male becomes known as ‘The Law’ and since he takes this role
he feels he should be receiving all the pleasure. The children must work for him and he is the
source of their pain. In Time B, the brothers come together and form the ‘brother band’ and use
their collective will to kill the father that has caused them so much pain. After his parricide the
brothers will begin to fight one another to gain the power that their father once had possessed.
Time C is the time of chaos, the brothers are fighting one another to gain power and the women
have to take over. The women keep the order and inform the brothers that the chaos is a result of
the death of ‘The Law’. In Time D, the father (the Law) returns as a symbolic totem. The concept
of ‘taboo’ is introduced and the brothers must renounce their instincts and have to sublimate their
love. The incest taboo forces them to stop trying to dominate the economy of pleasure. Due to