Fitness and Training Principles


Task One


Fitness can be defined as “the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigour and alertness without undue fatigue and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies”


Ref – (ca.geocities.com/cancer42ca/definitions.html)


Fitness can be broken down into motor fitness “this is the capability to perform successfully at a particular game.”


Ref- (Physical Education and Sport Studies)


And also physical fitness “this is the capability to meet physical and physiological demands made by a sporting activity”


Ref- (Physical Education and Sports Studies)


Components of motor fitness include:


· Reaction time – the time taken from the stimulus to first movement


· Balance – the ability to maintain a specific and stable orientation in relation to the environment


· Agility – the ability to change the position of the body in a space rapidly and accurately


· Co – ordination – the ability to integrate the nervous, skeletomuscular system and sensory systems to create a single smooth movement.


· Power – the ability to apply force at a fast rate


Components of physical fitness include:


· Cardiovascular endurance – which is the efficiency of the lungs and heart to carry oxygen to the working muscles


· Muscular endurance – is the ability for the muscle to contract over a prolonged period of time at a moderate intensity


· Strength – the ability to apply a force to overcome a resistance


· Flexibility – the range of movement possible at a joint


· Speed – the distance travelled per unit of time


Health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Ref – (www.who.int)


Health differs from fitness in that health is just to have well being and for your mind and body to function properly, fitness is the ability to do this with vigour and without fatigue. So some one who is fit may be healthier as they are in a better state of mind and those organs i.e. the heart work more efficiently, and can deal with daily stresses more easily, without fatigue so they have energy for leisure time activities.


Task Two


Anaerobic fitness refers to activities which require high intensity and short duration. During aerobic activity stored fuels such as glycogen provide energy at a fast rate without the need for oxygen. The system that helps provide the energy for anaerobic activity is called the ATP-PC system.


“ATP is broken down to give adenosine diphosphate, a ‘free’ phosphate and energy which is used for muscular work” Ref – (Sport and P.E)


In order for this system to continue to work ATP needs to be resynthesised from ADP to ATP, this is done through the breakdown of phosphocreatine which provides a third phosphate and energy to resynthesise ATP. The most important feature of this system is the speed in which ATP can be resynthesised through PC; this is why the system is used for very intense activity. The main drawback to this system is that there are only limited stores of ATP and PC in the muscles and is restricted to a short duration. “ . . no longer sustain ATP resynthesis. This usually occurs after 8 – 10 seconds of maximum effort.” Ref – (Sport and P.E) However an athlete can improve their aerobic fitness and withstand the onset of fatigue by increasing stores of ATP and PC in the muscles. This can be done using various types of training, an example is pyramid training “this is a form of multiple set training in which the weight is increased in each set and the repetitions are reduced.” Ref – (The Complete Guide to Strength Training.) This allows you to warm up the muscles gradually and prepare it to cope with heavier weights by the end of the sets; this allows the muscles to achieve overload and allowing the muscle to develop in size and strength. Another type of training that will help increase anaerobic fitness is interval training. In order for the correct system to be stressed you need to work for the correct duration for the ATP-PC system “the work period should last for 3-10 seconds” Ref – (Sport and P.E.) Intensity should be around 90-100% for the ATP-PC system. You also need to take into account the number of repetitions “up to 50 short intense bouts within