Families


Looking at lone parent families is like looking at a hologram picture: holding it


one way you see one thing, holding it a other way, you see another thing. This can be


profoundly disorienting. In order to avoid vertigo, I shall start by looking at the picture


from different angles, turning it slowly, noting the shifting patterns. All of these angles


are informed by the basic lens used here: what are meaningful concepts for social policy


formation?


It is dangerous to identify problems – and thereby their solutions – on the basis of


a structural factor (the presence of one rather that the two parents) when upon


examination this factor does not turn out to be the crucial variable. Consequently the first


question is, in what way are lone parent families the same or different from two-parent


families and from each other? What is the connection between poverty and lone parent


families? What is the connection between household membership and family


membership in lone parent and two-parent families? Underlying these questions will be


another question: What are the appropriate terms with which to label the various types of


families?


I shall proceed from there to explore models of the family underlying various


types of policies and their implications for lone parent families, and identify problems in


the currently prevailing model as well as suggest a possible alternative model. I shall be


using the term lone parent rather than one-parent or single parent family, since the latter


terms provide an inaccurate description of most of the families under consideration.


First of all, there are five pathways by which lone parent families may come into


existence. Three of them are subsequent to union dissolution, and two are through


acquisition of a child by an unmarried parent. A lone parent family may come into


existence through the death of a married parent, through the separation or divorce of a


married parent, through union dissolution of a parent living common-law, through birth


to an unmarried woman or through adoption of a child by a single adult. These different


pathways have different consequences for social policy.


By contrast, two-parent families come into existence in only two ways. A couple


marries and subsequently have children through birth or adoption or a person (with or


without children) marries a parent. This couple may have joint subsequent children as


well.


Lone parents may be either male or female. The vast majority are female, but a


small minority of them are male. The economic and social situation s of male and female


lone parents tend to be quite different, reflecting the differential economic and social


positions of men and women in general (McKie, 1993).


Lone parenthood is quite often identified with poverty. There is a strong


likelihood that lone parent families will be poor, especially if that lone parent is female


(Dooley, 1993), but in absolute terms, there are more husband-wife families in Canada


who are poor than there are poor lone parent families. Poverty is unfortunately a


characteristic that is typical of both husband-wife as well as lone parent families (as well


as unattached individuals).


Adopting the angle of the child – the participant that makes the lone parent family


a family – we can see major differences in the existence of this family form. A child may


live in a lone parent family during his/her entire childhood. Alternatively, living in a lone


parent family may be preceded by living in a two-parent family, and/or this may be


succeeded by living in a two-parent family, or there may be a repeated pattern of living in


a lone parent/two-parent situation.


Looking again at the holographic picture of the lone parent families as


well as two-parent families (biological as well as social), the differences within the


category of lone parent families and between the categories of lone parent and two-parent


families are as large as the similarities. Both types of families may involve a parent who


is not living with his (occasionally her) children. Household membership for children in


lone parent, as well as two-parent, families may or not be congruous with family


membership. Both types of families may be above or below the poverty threshold. Lone


parenthood may be a permanent or impermanent state, which is also