Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in

the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response

to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the

Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of

government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme

right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,

together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the

nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other

loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent

action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.

Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and

elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a

against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of

unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people’s will on one

select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom

all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that go

along with Fascism is Italy’s Benito Mussolini and Germany’s Adolf


The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who argue

that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.

George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main

philosophers who’s beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shaping

of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopher

who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societies

naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay could only be

slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence

to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were two

moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and the oppressed

class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient empires were

developed from the master majority and the religious ideas and views

grew out the slave majority. The idea of the "overman" or superman

which symbolized man at his most creative and highest intellectual

capacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal believed people

should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was also necessary

to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak society. Hegal

also sustained that laws should be made by the corporate organization of

the state.

Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the

community. The group as a whole is called the human will, which is

ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed down

from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led mass

movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power is in

the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be used to

control the population and everything in it so the community will be


Fascism’s ideal government would be fashioned around the good of the

community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the nation

and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the merging of

the state and business leadership, with concern only of the nation. In

this the nation will also take care of its members if the need should

arise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other need that might

come about.

The ideology of Fascism has been identified with totalitarianism, state

terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and blind obedience. Adolf

Hitler established his own personal ideology, Mein Kampf, which means

My Struggle. The book was written while Hitler was in prison and not

yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology after he took control of

Italy. Despite their two different angles on the use of Fascism Hitler

and Mussolini both worked similarly on how they established their

principles in the same basic manner. Their principles came from basic

responses to various issues the leaders faced.

Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy

and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against the

profound political and social changes brought about from inflation, and

declining social, economic, and political conditions. Italy, which was

ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace of fascist

ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this ideology to

Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect opportunity to take

complete control of the country and now was the time to do so. Mussolini

said "Fascism, which was not afraid to call itself reactionary…does

hesitate to call itself illiberal and anti-liberal" (Nazi Fascism and

the Modern Totalitarian State) this statement can be easily recognized

in the steps that Mussolini took to gain control of Italy. In 1919

Mussolini and his followers, mostly war veterans, were organized along