Fascism is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that first arose in
the early part of the twentieth-century in Europe. It was a response
to the rapid social upheaval, the devastation of World War I, and the
Bolshevik Revolution. Fascism is a philosophy or a system of
government the advocates or exercises a dictatorship of the extreme
right, typically through the merging of state and business leadership,
together with an ideology of aggressive nationalism. Celebrating the
nation or the race as an organic community surpassing all other
loyalties. This right-wing philosophy will even advocate violent
action to maintain this loyalty which is held in such high regards.
Fascism approaches politics in two central areas, populist and
elitist. Populist in that it seeks to activate "the people" as a whole
against perceived oppressors or enemies and to create a nation of
unity. The elitist approach treats as putting the people’s will on one
select group, or most often one supreme leader called El Duce, from whom
all power proceeds downward. The two most recognized names that go
along with Fascism is Italy’s Benito Mussolini and Germany’s Adolf
The philosophy of Fascism can be traced to the philosophers who argue
that the will is prior to and superior to the intellect or reason.
George Sorel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Georg Hegal are main
philosophers who’s beliefs and ideologies greatly influenced the shaping
of Fascist theory. Sorel (1847-1922) was a French social philosopher
who had a major influence on Mussolini. Sorel believed that societies
naturally became decadent and disorganized. This decay could only be
slowed by the leadership of idealists who were willing to use violence
to obtain power. Nietzsche (1844-1900) theorized that there were two
moral codes: the ruling class ( master morality) and the oppressed
class (slave morality). Nietzsche believed the ancient empires were
developed from the master majority and the religious ideas and views
grew out the slave majority. The idea of the "overman" or superman
which symbolized man at his most creative and highest intellectual
capacity was brought about by Nietzsche as well. Hegal believed people
should sacrifice for the community. He thought war was also necessary
to unify the state, with peace bring nothing but a weak society. Hegal
also sustained that laws should be made by the corporate organization of
the state.
Fascism values human nature in a group for the benefit of the
community. The group as a whole is called the human will, which is
ruled by a select group or one leader, with the power being passed down
from top to bottom. Fascism seeks to organize an organization led mass
movement in an effort to capture the state power. When the power is in
the firm grip of the ruler, or IL Duce, the government will be used to
control the population and everything in it so the community will be
Fascism’s ideal government would be fashioned around the good of the
community or nation. Everyone would work for the benefit of the nation
and that is all. Regularly this would take place with the merging of
the state and business leadership, with concern only of the nation. In
this the nation will also take care of its members if the need should
arise. This could be money ,shelter, food, or any other need that might
come about.
The ideology of Fascism has been identified with totalitarianism, state
terror, fanaticism, arranged violence, and blind obedience. Adolf
Hitler established his own personal ideology, Mein Kampf, which means
My Struggle. The book was written while Hitler was in prison and not
yet in power. Mussolini fashioned his ideology after he took control of
Italy. Despite their two different angles on the use of Fascism Hitler
and Mussolini both worked similarly on how they established their
principles in the same basic manner. Their principles came from basic
responses to various issues the leaders faced.
Fascism is an authoritarian political movement that developed in Italy
and other European countries after 1919 as a reaction against the
profound political and social changes brought about from inflation, and
declining social, economic, and political conditions. Italy, which was
ready for a new political aspect, was the birthplace of fascist
ideology. Benito Mussolini was the man who brought this ideology to
Italy. Mussolini had been looking for the perfect opportunity to take
complete control of the country and now was the time to do so. Mussolini
said "Fascism, which was not afraid to call itself reactionary…does not
hesitate to call itself illiberal and anti-liberal" (Nazi Fascism and
the Modern Totalitarian State) this statement can be easily recognized
in the steps that Mussolini took to gain control of Italy. In 1919
Mussolini and his