This essay Explication Essay has a total of 1212 words and 7 pages.
Kellner, D. (1995) ‘Advertising and Consumer Culture’ in Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage. Pp332-3 & 335-43
‘Questioning the Media: A Critical Introduction’, was published in 1995 by an American theorist called Kellner. The passage given was on the subject of fashion and advertising, which is a powerful aspect of modern day life. Advertising did not exist 25-30 years ago, and it is only in the present-day that advertising plays a large part in society.
In the text Kellner depicts a clear Neo-Marxist view and tries to convince the reader that his views and argument are correct. He does this by using the quotes and thoughts of renowned theorists to back up his points. He also uses statistics from several magazines and deconstructs several adverts.
Kellner starts the passage by portraying a very American view of advertising. He does this by briefly putting forward the argument that advertising has a positive effect. He then goes on to describe the role of advertising and how it works, before moving into his argument that advertising has a negative influence on society.
To make the case for advertising, Kellner starts by quoting from Harms (1989), which states that advertising is a necessity when selling a product. This is the extent to which Kellner argues the point that advertising is beneficial to society.
In the text, Kellner then goes on to describe different types of advertising and how it works. He starts by splitting advertising into two types, informative advertising and human interest copy. Informative advertising appeals to reason, giving consumers an incentive to purchase the product, where as human interest copy appeals to emotions and the average consumers response to these emotions. Adverts encourage you to identify with the product/situation. They often provide problems and promote their product as the solution. Kellner also says that advertising is very manipulative. He talks of how adverts and the quality/price of the goods vary, in order to appeal to a specific target audience.
Kellners main point in the argument is that advertising has too much influence on societies thoughts, social values, fantasies and behaviour. Adverts play on peoples fears of not being socially accepted, causing people to believe they need the product to be happy. According to Kellner advertisers have to continuously change societies ways of life, in order to keep the consumers interested in their product. Advertising creates false needs in society in order to sell the product and because of these false needs that have been created, society is given a false sense of individuality. They are encouraged to purchase goods that will give them individuality, although these goods are mass produced and associated with social acceptance, a contradiction in itself. Kellner also uses some of the thoughts from The Frankfurt School, one of which states that contemporary consumerism threatens individuality, democracy and the community.
Kellner also argues that modern society is obsessed with image, style and social acceptance. Because of this women are more susceptible to advertising as there is more pressure from society for women to be slim, successful and beautiful. Therefore Kellner argues that because society is obsessed with self image, consumers are not free, but only have the illusion of freedom.
Kellner also puts forward the idea that as a result of advertising, individuality and freedom are no longer defined by personal opinions, actions and logical behaviour. But defined by possessions, style and consumption. According to Marcuse and Kellner, to be free and individual, you have to free yourself from the system of pleasures, consumption and entertainment. Kellner argues that due to advertising, society has been essentially dumbed down. He states that contemporary society is no longer creative or individual, but is like a standardised or manufactured product, obsessed with efficiency and effectiveness. Kellner argues that corporations dominate modern society and because of this people are looked upon as statistics and numbers. Consumers are stereotyped, labelled, and organized into target audiences to make advertising more efficient and effective.
Kellner then moves on to talk about advertising on TV, which is an ever-present and powerful medium in modern day society. Advertising on TV is expensive and often the programming itself is cheaper than the adverts. Kellner suggests that one view of TV is that the programming is only there in order
Topics Related to Explication Essay
Advertising, Communication design, Marketing, Product design, Douglas Kellner
Essays Related to Explication Essay
Magazine Article SummariesMagazine Article Summaries To: Mr. Teach – Eng 201 From: name goes here Subject: Major Assignment #3 -- Journal Entries Date: May 8, 2000 JOURNAL #1-- INC. THE MAGAZINE FOR GROWING COMPANIES May 1994. Publisher: James J. Spanfeller, 488 Madison Ave., 6th Floor New York, NY 10022 (212) 326-2600 Audience Statement: Inc. speaks directly to the entrepreneur, sole-proprietor, small business partnerships. Advertising: There were several advertisements including investing, retirement, tax accounting, c
Management Pratices at Sonic CorpManagement Pratices at Sonic Corp SONIC CORPORATION INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND INFORMATION In 1953 Sonic Corporation was founded by Tony Smith in Shawnee, Oklahoma under a different name of the Top Hat. Tony Smith started the company as a drive-in restaurant featuring hot dogs, hamburgers, and french-fried onion rings. In the mid-50s Smith was asked by Charles Pappe for assistance in establishing a similar restaurant in a rural town also located in Oklahoma. This was the beginning of a partnership
Marketing of an adjustable headlightMarketing of an adjustable headlight 1. Marketing research (1.1) Market * Size of the market The size of the market is large - the whole car industry (world-wide) with multi-billion pound worth of value. Below are some of the car manufacturers today: Acura | Alfa Romeo | American Motors | Audi | British Marques | BMW | Bricklin | Bugatti | Buick | Cadillac | Chevrolet | Chrysler | Citroen | Daewoo | DeLorean | DeTomaso | Dodge | Eagle | Ferrari | Fiat | Ford | General Motors | Holden | Honda | H
Mind body weeknessmind body weekness The Mind, Music, and Behavior abstract The main purpose of the paper is to investigate and present the relationship between the mind, music, and human behavior. For this purpose, research is presented on previous works and studies that link music with the mind. Based on this research, music increases neurotransmitter levels. Soft or mellow music has a tendency to promote tranquillity, while music with tempo sometimes distracts. Human memories can be cued by music, and music ca
Modern lifemodern life How Technology Effects Modern America U.S. Wage Trends The microeconomic picture of the U.S. has changed immensely since 1973, and the trends are proving to be consistently downward for the nation’s high school graduates and high school drop-outs. “Of all the reasons given for the wage squeeze – international competition, technology, deregulation, the decline of unions and defense cuts – technology is probably the most critical. It has favored the educated and the skilled,” says M. B
My Great-Grandmother was not a PersonMy Great-Grandmother was not a Person My Great-Grandmother was not a person. Neither was yours. Up until about 67 years ago no females were. We were supposed to be pregnant and barefoot in the kitchen. At least that\'s the perception that the laws enforced. (For ex: The Election Act of the Dominion of Canada and The Common Law of England) As part of the British Commonwealth many of our laws were the same as England\'s and enforced by British parliament. One such law from the Common Law of Englan
Women As News AnchorsWomen As News Anchors Women in all careers are striving to gain equality in the work force today, and female television news anchors are definitely part of the fight. The road to television news anchoring is a rocky one, where only a few women survive and many fail. Where progress was once thought to have been made, there aren\'t many females getting ahead in the world of television news. Today, there is a very slow, if any, gain in the numbers of women who succeed. There are many questions surr
Political CommunicationPolitical Communication Politics and the media have long been intimately involved with each other, with media strongly setting an agenda in which politics is very important. (Harris 1999,p.167) “Our perceived reality of the real world is largely a product of the media.” (Harris 1999,p.186) It is not known which influences more but there are definitely two sides to the story. Many studies have been done to decide but each comes out with different answers. Many say that the media has more of an im
SocietySociety society For more than half a century science fiction writers have thrilled and challenged readers with visions of the future and future worlds. These authors offered an insight into what they expected man, society, and life to be like at some future time. One such author, Ray Bradbury, utilized this concept in his work, Fahrenheit 451, a futuristic look at a man and his role in society. Bradbury utilizes the luxuries of life in America today, in addition to various occupations and techno
Hollywood and Computer AnimationHollywood and Computer Animation IS 490 SPECIAL TOPICS Computer Graphics Lance Allen May 6, 1996 Table of Contents Introduction 3 How It Was 3 How It All Began 4 Times Were Changing 6 Industry\'s First Attempts 7 The Second Wave 10 How the Magic is Made 11 Modeling 12 Animation 13 Rendering 13 Conclusion 15 Bibliography 16 Introduction Hollywood has gone digital, and the old ways of doing things are dying. Animation and special effects created with computers have been embraced by television netw
Student RightsStudent Rights Student\'s Rights by Q.T.M. McConnell Are you in the mood for some good reading? The other day I was in the Guidance Office looking for guidance when I saw an unassuming three page packet. Having nothing else to do, I picked one up and began reading. I learned that the name of this little manual is the Student\'s Rights and Responsibilities Bill. I thought to myself, my, what a great place is La Follette, that I can simply walk into my guidance office and learn my rights as a stu
How Magnets Affect Computer DisksHow Magnets Affect Computer Disks BackGround One of the most commonly used Computer data storaged mediums is a Computer Disk or a Floppy. These are used in everyday life, in either our workplace or at home. These disks have many purposes, such as: Storing data: Floppies can be used to store software/data for short preiods of time, Transferring data: Floppies are used to transfer/copy data from one computer to another. Hiding data: Floppies are also sometimes used to hide sensitive or confidentia
How Technology Effects Modern AmericaHow Technology Effects Modern America U.S. Wage Trends The microeconomic picture of the U.S. has changed immensely since 1973, and the trends are proving to be consistently downward for the nation\'s high school graduates and high school drop-outs. “Of all the reasons given for the wage squeeze – international competition, technology, deregulation, the decline of unions and defense cuts – technology is probably the most critical. It has favored the educated and the skilled,” says M. B. Zuckerman
BeerBeer Historically hops, yeast, malted barley, and water have all played the greatest and most important role in society. For almost 8000 years these ingredients have been mixed and have been appreciated by all classes of society in almost all civilizations. The old cliche accident is the mother of invention is a phrase that definitely holds true in the world of beer. The discovery was made way back when the Mediterranean region was the seat of civilization and barley flourished as a dietary st
Coca-Cola and its EvolutionCoca-Cola and its Evolution The Coca-Cola company started out as an insignificant one man business and over the last one hundred and ten years it has grown into one of the largest companies in the world. The first operator of the company was Dr. John Pemberton and the current operator is Roberto Goizueta. Without societies help, Coca-Cola could not have become over a 50 billion dollar business. Coca-Cola was invented by Dr. John Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist. He concocted the formula in a thr
CIA Covert Operations: Panama and NicaraguaCIA Covert Operations: Panama and Nicaragua In the 1950\'s, the repression of domestic political dissent reached near hysteria. In the process the CIA\'s covert operations, already in progress in Europe, expanded worldwide. By 1953, according to the 1970\'s Senate investigation, there were major covert programs under way in 48 countries, consisting of propaganda, paramilitary, and political action operations. In 1949, the agency\'s covert action department had about 300 employees and 47 stations
Theory of Varied Consumer Choice Behaviour and It'Theory of Varied Consumer Choice Behaviour and It\'s Implicati INTRODUCTION For decades, scholars and practitioners have been frustrated by the very limited capacity of either psychological or marketing models to predict individual choices on particular occasions. This paper discusses a theory which explains the degree to which the extant models omit important influences that produce varied individual choice behaviour. The focus of this paper is on the sequences of product purchases. Discretiona
Total Quality ManagementTotal Quality Management Total Quality Management Total Quality Management(TQM) is an organisational process that actively involves every function and every employee in satisfying customers needs, both internal and external. TQM works by continuously improving all aspect of work through structured control, improvement and planning activities that are carried out in concern with guiding ideology that focuses on Quality and Customer Satisfaction as the top priorities. There has been many arguments
AustraliaAustralia INTRODUCTION Australia, island continent located southeast of Asia and forming, with the nearby island of Tasmania, the commenwealth of Australia, a self governing member of the Commenwealth of Nations. The commenwealth of Australia is made up of six states--News south Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Wester n Australia--and two territories--the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Australia, including Tasmania but excluding external terri
Burger King and Its Advertising CampaignsBurger King and Its Advertising Campaigns Burger King is a reliable burger company which has had its ups and downs. In 1974, it came out with a slogan of Have it your way and at this time it also had a 4 % market share. Burger King\'s idea was to have the customer have their burger done their way rather than a standard burger. In the early 80\'s Burger King was trying to keep sales growing so they had to keep changing their advertising. In 1982 Battle of the burgers and Aren\'t you hungry f
Broadcasting and ProgramingBroadcasting and Programing Steiner\'s Model Steiner\'s model on programming preferences and broadcasting choices tries to show how stations come to the conclusion of what programming to show. This model goes on the assumption that broadcasters will go after the largest audience possible. Going on the information given about this hypothetical situation, we can predict what each of the four stations in this market will show. There are three distinct audience preferences. The first groups of 1200
The Bubble Economy of JapanThe Bubble Economy of Japan The Economy of Japan had experience a tremendous growth since the end of the Korean war. The growth of GNP in 1967 and 1968 was above 10 % (double digit growth period) which exceed countries such as Britain, France and Germany. The economy experienced a boost is due to many reasons, such as: enlargement of industrial facilities, massive adaptation of western technology and education, lower the military expense to 1% of GNP, relation with power nation, human resources
Book Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An AcBook Review of Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide Submitted in partial fulfillment of B.S. in Business Administration Century University, New Mexico Grade = 95% A} Business Policy and Strategy: An Action Guide, by Robert Murdick, R. Carl Moor and Richard H. Eckhouse, attempts to tie together the broad policies and interrelationships that exist among the many functional areas which undergraduate students typically study. The authors intend the text to supplement the typical case book a
Business PlanBusiness Plan Business Plan: Progressive Consulting What follows is a complete business plan for a hypothetical company. Please copy or save to your disk and use as an example in developing your own business plan. If you would like to read a series of articles jump to Web Marketing . For additional business aids click on The Practical Tools of Consulting 1. 0 Executive Summary Progressive Consulting will be formed as a consulting company specializing in marketing of high technology products in i
Soft Drink Industry Case StudySoft Drink Industry Case Study Table of Contents Introduction 3 Description 3 Segments 3 Caveats 4 Socio-Economic 4 Relevant Governmental or Environmental Factors, etc. 4 Economic Indicators Relevant for this Industry 4 Threat of New Entrants 5 Economies of Scale 5 Capital Requirements 6 Proprietary Product Differences 7 Absolute Cost Advantage 8 Learning Curve 8 Access to Inputs 8 Proprietary Low Cost Production 8 Brand Identity 9 Access to Distribution 9 Expected Retaliation 9 Conclusion 10 Su
Management's Achievement Claims PerspectiveManagement\'s Achievement Claims Perspective It is to no one\'s surprise that Coca-Cola is one of the world\'s largest companies. Fourteen years ago, Coca-Cola began building credibility to its investors by never over-promising, just consistently hitting long-term growth targets. In Great Britain, Coca-Cola surpassed two leading teas of consumption per capita. People said it would not be possible, but Coke did it. That is just one example. Coca-Cola\'s management believes in the theory that peop
Cola WarsCola Wars Stephen Brennan Accounting II Tue/Thur. 3-4:30 The Wall Street Journal recently did an article on how the soft-drink battleground has now turned toward new overseas markets. While once the United States, Australia, Japan, and Western Europe were the dominant soft-drink markets, the growth has slowed down dramatically, but they are still important markets for Coca-Cola and Pepsi. However, Eastern Europe, Mexico, China, Saudi Arabia, and India have become the new hot spots. Both Coca-C
New Financial and Statistical Measures to MonitorNew Financial and Statistical Measures to Monitor The Success of GE To : The Board of Directors, GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Subject : NEW FINANCIAL AND STATISTICAL MEASURES TO MONITOR THE SUCCESS OF GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY After Mr. Weltch announced my new assignment, I pondered how I could go about guaranteeing the best possible result: a creditable and well organized work that is going to help you, the Board of Directors, plan for the future of the company in a better way. Before starting my an
History of AdvertisingHistory of Advertising This Essay is for People that are in VCE up to Elderly People Advertising is dated back to the Christian Era. One of the first known methods of advertising was outdoor signs, they would be painted on the wall of a building and were usually very eye catching. Archaeologists have found signs in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii which advertised travelers to go to a tavern situated in another town. In about the 1440\'s there was an invention of a movable-type of advertisi
IntelIntel Results of operations. Intel broke a record in net revenues in 1995, for the ninth consecutive year, rising by 41% from 1994 to 1995 and by 31% from 1993 to 1994. Higher volumes of the rapidly raising Pentium microprocessor family, partially offset by lower prices, and increased sales of related board-level products were responsible for most of the growth in revenues in 1994 and 1995. Revenues from the Intel486 microprocessor family declined substantially in 1995 due to a shift in market d
Introduction to BusinessIntroduction to Business Business plays a major role within our society. It is a creative and competitive activity that continuously contributes to the shaping of our society. By satisfying the needs and wants people cannot satisfy themselves, businesses improve the quality of life for people and create a higher standard of living. It is a way for individuals to provide goods and services to consumers, and at the same time, produce a profit for themselves. Businesses are not only important becau
Lucent TechnologiesLucent Technologies BACKGROUND In 1996, AT&T decided to split into three different companies. These new companies were the new AT&T, NCR, and Lucent Technologies. Lucent Technologies is one of the leading designers, developers, and manufacturers of telecommunications systems, software, and products.1 They are beginning to emerge as a Fortune 40 company. Lucent Technologies builds local networks, business telephone systems, and consumer telephones that access the global networks.2 Lucent Technolo
The Question Of Whether Or Not Marketing Is CompleThe Question Of Whether Or Not Marketing Is Completely Unethical The question of whether or not marketing is completely unethical is the question most critics of marketing seem to be focusing their attention on. Ethics provide the basis for deciding whether a particular action is morally good or morally bad (Britt 553). But, each individual develops different opinions, moral standards, and values. So, marketers will deal with similar issues differently because there is no correct way to handle
Marketing ProjectMarketing Project Bill Rossetti Introduction In the ever changing technological era of the soon to be 21st century, electronic advancements have amazed us all. Unfortunately, the educational gap for the common man/woman as a computer end user has left many far behind. There are those who know and those who don\'t. This gap is the anchor of the computer industry. One question comes to mind. Why would I buy a computer, investing thousands of dollars, when I don\'t know the first thing about them?
SkittlesSkittles OVERVIEW Skittles is a variety entertainment and dining establishment located in Washington, D.C. . Our mission is to provide our patrons with a unique blend of live entertainment while delivering a top quality dining experience. We will do this by emphasizing service excellence and the highest level of performance in all aspects of our operations and services. Our prominent services include live entertainment, ranging in form from comedy to jazz performances to poetry recitals and othe
Netscape Analysis ReportNetscape Analysis Report I. History Netscape Communications Corporation, originally named Mosaic Communications Corporation (MCOM) was founded in April 1994 by Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen. They released their first browser products free to Internet users in September 1994. Jim Clark is chairman of Netscape Communications Corporation. Before founding the company, Clark was the chairman of Silicon Graphics, a computer hardware manufacturer he founded in 1982. Marc Andreessen is vice president of
OligopolistsOligopolists There are four market structures in our economy today : Perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopolies and monopolies. This essay shall describe the oligopoly market. The definition of an oligopoly states that in an industry, a small number of firms dominate the market. There are a low number of firms in the industry, becasue and adding to the barriers to entry. The barriers of entry to an oligopolistc market include the financial resources needed to enter and such regul
Penguin Books: Introduction to Modern BusinessPenguin Books: Introduction to Modern Business The aim of this essay is to comment on how, over the last six years Penguin Books Limited has grown and managed external and internal changes. Sixty one years ago, Allen Lane, the managing director of the Bodley Head, a British publishing company, revolutionised reading with the introduction of the first ten Penguin paperbacks. Today, over 600 million paperbacks are sold yearly. At a time when there was still little of entertainment, paperback books
Met North Energy Corporation: 4 Year Net Profit PrMet North Energy Corporation: 4 Year Net Profit Projections The current budget figures for the four year period 1996 - 1999 show a steady decrease in profits eventually resulting in a loss during the fourth year. The graph shows the decrease in net profit while gross profit remains virtually static and expenses increase. After an initial loss during the first year the figures indicate a healthy profit at the end of the period. The figures in this graph from the spreadsheet clearly show the long
Radio and Television AdvertisingRadio and Television Advertising We are constantly surrounded by advertising. From bus stop benches to televsion commericals. Everywhere we lookd something is being advcertised. Two of the best ways to advertise are radio and television. These two mediums effect virtually everyone. Most of us listen to the radio or watch televison at some point each day. Because of this, many of us are able to remember products by the jingles or slogans that are used. An example of this is the slogan for Charmin
Rainforest Cafe, Inc: Outline to Rainforest Cafe RRainforest Cafe, Inc: Outline to Rainforest Cafe Research Report CORPORATE BACKGROUND History Formation Rainforest Cafe, Inc. was incorporated in Minnesota on February 3, 1994 to own and operate restaurant and retail facilities under the name of Rainforest Cafe - A Wild Place to Shop and Eat. Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer Election. Lyle Berman was elected Chairman and CEO of Rainforest Cafe at its inception in February 1994. Background. Berman has been Chairman and CEO of G
Why Launch An Advertising CampaignWhy Launch An Advertising Campaign To start off, when your company is just becoming established in the British market, consumers will have no knowledge of your product, we must encourage or persuade the consumer to buy your product. To make customers aware of the product we must advertise. Large scale advertising mainly consists of advertising on TV, Radio, newspapers and other large scale media. This ensures that advertising reaches the largest amount of people in the shortest amount of time. I
Advances in Technology and EconomicsAdvances in Technology and Economics The microeconomic picture of the U.S. has changed immensely since 1973, and the trends are proving to be consistently downward for the nation\'s high school graduates and high school drop-outs. “Of all the reasons given for the wage squeeze – international competition, technology, deregulation, the decline of unions and defense cuts – technology is probably the most critical. It has favored the educated and the skilled,” says M. B. Zuckerman, editor-in-chief
U.S. Wage TrendsU.S. Wage Trends The microeconomic picture of the U.S. has changed immensely since 1973, and the trends are proving to be consistently downward for the nation\'s high school graduates and high school drop-outs. “Of all the reasons given for the wage squeeze – international competition, technology, deregulation, the decline of unions and defense cuts – technology is probably the most critical. It has favored the educated and the skilled,” says M. B. Zuckerman, editor-in-chief of U.S. News & World
The St. Catharines StandardThe St. Catharines Standard I choose to do my essay on the St. Catharines Standard. The Standard is the St.Catharines and Thorold area newspaper. It provides us with the local news, advertising and it keeps us in touch with what is happening all over the world. It was first owned and runned by the Burgoyne family and was printed in St. Catharines but, was sold last year to Southam Inc. and has started to be printed in Hamilton. Southam Inc. also owns other papers such as The Hamilton Spectator,T
The Used Car IndustryThe Used Car Industry In the past 30 years, the United States auto industry has gone through many changes. In order to stay competitive with a foreign market, constantly threatening to eat away at profits, the American auto industry has had to respond by being flexible and adapt itself to this new situation. Although, in the past, they were slow to get the message sent out by the consumers, the domestic auto industry now seems to be more than willing to analyze, and answer, the demands of a smar
What Are The History, Laws, Profitability, and ResWhat Are The History, Laws, Profitability, and Responsibilities To The Consumer Of Advertising Hard Liquor on TV In The United States? INTRODUCTION Purpose The goal of this report is to inform the reader of the recent events that prompted hard liquor advertising on TV. In addition, the laws associated with advertising across this media, as well as recent legislative endeavors to control such advertising. Furthermore, the report also focuses on the potential profitability the distilled spirit\'s
20th Century (Public Relation)20th Century (Public Relation) MARKETING 438 PUBLIC RELATIONS MAJOR CASE PRESENTATION 20TH CENTURY INSURANCE COMPANY BY Branson C. Nicholson Nichelle Cox Rhonda Porter 1lb4198 02/17/99 Instructor: Paula Becker UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX Long Beach Campus Table of Contents History, Position, Targeted Market, Goals Page 3 Northridge Earthquake, Crisis Page 4 Comeback Kid, Results of PR Campaign Page 6 Developing a Crisis Plan, Page 7 Crisis Team, Milestones for Communication Page 8 Issues Page 9 Plan A
A Market EconomyA Market Economy A Market Economy is the most efficient way of organizing economic activities. Millions of suppliers (firm) and consumers (buyers) make the markets. The suppliers and consumers sell and purchase goods that satisfy the wants of consumers and suppliers. Suppliers and consumers make rational decisions, respond to incentives and make tradeoffs. Over all trade makes everyone better off. (Mankiw) If one firm does not meet the wants of the consumer then they will lose their place in the
Banning cigarettesBanning cigarettes Jeremy S. Kenton Mr. Condon English 3 2 Jan 1995 Cigarettes: What’s Killing Our Country This year alone cigarettes will kill over 420,000 Americans, and many more will suffer from cancers, and circulatory and respiratory system diseases. These horrible illnesses were known to originate from cigarettes for years, and recently nicotine, the main chemical additive in cigarettes, was declared addictive by the Food and Drug Administration. This explains why smokers continue to use