Elevator History

An elevator is a mechanism for moving people and freight from level to level in a
building or any other structure. The first elevator-like structure was built in 236 BC by the
Archimeds. This construction was a hoist operated by ropes and pulleys. However, the
first pragmatic elevator was not developed until the 19th century. Though sensible, this
elevator has been modified many times throughout the course of history and is still
updated with all of the new advancements in math and technology. From the start of the
production of elevators through today, there have been numerous and boundless
improvements made on their structure and how they operate: all due to the advancement
of mathematics and technology.
The first elevator developed was known as a manual elevator. This system of
elevators used “relay logic”. Relay logic was a simple wiring based on circuits. This type
of elevator did not transfer people from one level to another, only cargo. *****
The second type of elevators was developed in the 1800s. These elevators were
powered by steam. At first, these elevators were used solely to transport freight in
factories and ore in mines. Unfortunately, these elevators required a safety device to
restrain the elevator from dropping if it’s supporting cable broke, and this had not been
invented yet. Eventually, this necessity was discerned and acted upon. In 1852, Elisha
Graves Otis designed the first safety contrivance for elevators. This device was a system
involving spring-operated cams that affianced the guide rails in the elevator shaft when the
cable broke. This secured the elevator from subsiding which enabled steam powered
elevators to be used for transporting people along with cargo. This new use was caused
by the precautions taken in improving the safety of steam powered elevators. It was first
used for people in 1857 in New York’s own ‘Haughwout’ department store. This edifice
was driven by steam power: unlike the manual elevator it had the capability of transporting
people from floor to floor. Though this was a major amplification in the manufacturing of
elevators, technology and mathematics were still improving allowing for even more types
of ameliorated elevators to take the place of those already produced.
As mathematics advanced, the third type of elevators was formulated. This being
the hydraulic elevator was the first practical elevator with semblance to those of today’s
time. The concept of hydraulics is somewhat based on Pascal’s Law. This stated that
pressure exerted upon a liquid is transmitted in all directions at the same magnitude. This
was theorized sometime in the mid-17th century yet it’s capability of advancing and
explaining technology was not fully accredited until the 19th century when hydraulic
elevators were first introduced. Hydraulic elevators were used between 1857 and 1889.
Operated by means of a vertical plunger, this elevator traveled up and down a cylinder
pushing and lowering the car above it. The vertical plunger was reallocated by liquid
under pressure. A hand-driven pump (hydraulic jack) created this pressure. The basic
idea behind any hydraulic system is extraordinarily simple. Any force that is applied at one
point is moved to another point using an ‘incompressible fluid’ (either oil or water) while
the force is frequently multiplied in the process. The fluid used was most often oil. Oil
was preferred over water because of its shielding and lubricating behavior, and in the case
of mineral oil, its low coherence. Though the popular use of hydraulic elevators ended in
1889, they are still used in prewar buildings. Furthermore, they are presently utilized in
carrying certain heavy masses.
Electrically driven elevators were devised before their initial commercial
application in 1889. This presentation took place in one of New York’s finest buildings,
the Demarest. For the first time in all history, an electrically driven elevator was installed
for the utilization of the public. This genre of elevator was operated by an electric motor.
This motor drove a winding drum in the basement of the building. Following this,
significant advancements came about in 1894 and then another in 1895. First, in 1894,
push-button controls were introduced. Like modern elevators, this invention suffered
people to simply push the button of the floor they were going to instead of having to use a
lever to determine the floor (by pushing it left or right for down and the opposite for up).
The second invention (1895) was that of a hoisting apparatus. This device was
ascertained in England. It’s purport was to make the move of the cable drum to the top of
the