This essay Early Civilizations has a total of 527 words and 4 pages.
From 3000 BC to 1500 BC four civilizations arose that historians to this day marvel at, the Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Indus River Valley people, and the Shang dynasty in China. They all had great accomplishments in government, and religion and inventions. While they had their own different civilizations many similarities arise, such as depending on the river and their polytheistic religions. They had very isolated civilizations with the exception of the Sumerians. The geography, religion, and their governments all contributed to their success as a civilization.
The Egyptians were situated in northern Africa around the Nile. The Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Nubian Desert, and Libyan Desert were the natural boundaries that made the Egyptians very isolated. Also, the Indus River valley civilization was rather isolated, with water to the east and west, the Hindu Kush and Himalayas to the North. The monsoons that are seasonal flood the rivers. The Shang dynasty was situated in China over the Yellow River. On the contrary the Sumerians were not isolated at all in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia was in the Fertile Crescent, which was why many invaders invaded their land, ultimately crushing them.
The polytheistic religions of the early civilizations were rather similar. The Egyptians had pharaohs, which were considered to have a god’s blood. Egyptians also had a main god Osiris, who was god of the Nile. The Egyptians also worshiped local gods. They also believed in the afterlife, which required mummification to accomplish. Sumerians also had a polytheistic religion, and like the Egyptians each region or city-state worship a local god primarily. They pictured their gods as having little regard for human life. The Sumerians did not believe in an afterlife. The Shang dynasty’s religion is rather different compared to the others Shang Ti was a god that ruled over lesser gods. They also believed that ancestors were able to go between through gods and people. Also Oracle Bones were used to tell the future. Lastly, The IRVC was also polytheistic religion they revered bulls and some trees, and held them as sacred.
The governments of these four civilizations were rather different with kings, pharaohs, and nobles. In Egypt a pharaoh had god’s blood and was an absolute monarch. In Sumeria had twelve city-states that were very populated somewhere from 20,000 to 250,000 people in each. Each city-state was governed independently and had their own kings. The king was a military leader, and a priest, making Sumeria a theocracy. The IRVC had a centralized government, which is indicated, by very intricately planned cities. Priest-kings were the leaders of the land. The Shang dynasty had kings that ruled over nobles who ruled over providences.
All four civilizations were different but significantly similarly in the sense that they all relied on the water for transportation water for irrigation. The Nile the tigris, the Euphrates, the Indus, and the Yellow river were the rivers that the civilizations settled upon. The civilizations unfortunately all saw their end. From the cuneiform, the wheel, silk and indoors plumbing many very important inventions were made.
February 6, 2000
Topics Related to Early Civilizations
Civilizations, Mesopotamia, Sumer, River valley civilization, Shang dynasty, Egyptians, Tigris, Ancient history, Ancient art
Essays Related to Early Civilizations
Lord of the Flies thematic essayLord of the Flies thematic essay As mankind has progressed throughout history, his idea of god has changed with his domination of nature and nature\'s elements. When man made the transition from a Paleolithic to a Neolithic lifestyle, his mastery of nature attained a higher level because of the bow and arrow. With the bow and arrow, man could now control animals, because the bow became an extremely efficient way of dealing with animals before they could come close enough to kill. The gods of the
Native American PrejudiceNative American Prejudice Koeneman 1 Adam J.E. Koeneman English 190-28 Professor Engles November 4, 1996 Prejudice Against Native Americans These people began migrating thirty thousand years before Christopher Colombus discovered the Americas. Native Americans migrated from Asia, crossing a land bridge where the Bering Strait off the coast of Alaska is today. Over the centuries these people spread throughout the continents of North and South America. Since the arrival of the Europeans in 1492
NemesisNemesis Make this field active and press CTRL-V Book Review Name of Book: Nemesis Author: Isaac Asimov was born in 1920 in Petrovichi, Russia. When he was three years of age, his family immigrated to the United States and settled in Brooklyn, New York. Asimov turned to full time writing in 1958. This accomplished writer is best known for his novels dealing with science fiction. However, his works extend to other subjects. These include humour, mystery, history, and some volumes involving the Bib
NightNight Night The Halocaust, a horrible time for the world. Just as any war is. War is the single most destructive thing our world has. It can take the lives of millions of people in just a few seconds.War however may seem bad from the perspective of many people, but it is even worse from the perspective of a single person. A boy for instance, trapped between two opposing forces. Elie for example has lived through this. A boy of only 15, how much he has suffered through. During the course of the b
Woman's Struggle for IndependenceWoman\'s Struggle for Independence Women have had to fight for there independence. They have been repressed for a long period of history. Only recently have women started to gain respect as equals and individuals. Even today women are still looked down upon for there sex. From the begging of history women have been viewed as a lesser sex. In the time Mesopotamia women we in charge of the children and the home. In Ancient Egypt women had no power or authority. Women were viewed as property. The H
Repressive Governments in Zamiatin's We and OrwellRepressive Governments in Zamiatin\'s We and Orwell\'s 1984 The Repressive Governments of Zamiatin\'s We and Orwell\'s 1984 Benjamin Bulloch Outline: Thesis: Both Zamiatin\'s We and Orwell\'s 1984 have governments that repress actions and thoughts through the use of physical and psychological force. I. Intro. II. We\'s Government\'s Use of Psychological Force A. Number system B. Sexual Registration III. 1984\'s Governments Use of Psychological Force A. Newspeak B. Doublethink IV. Both Government
Running WildRunning Wild Running Wild Gabe Vincenzo Essay About the Novel Hiroshima Welcome to the nuclear age. Temperature are hotter than the surface of the sun. Light is blinding. Air pressure is deadly. Radiation is lethal. The experiences of six people that survived the planets first nuclear explosion are reported to us in Hiroshima by John Hershey. The book begins by describing the situation of the six individuals just before and at the moment of the explosion that changed history. The book first intr
ShakespeareShakespeare Shakespeare\'s Portrayal of Jews In Shakespeare\'s play, The Merchant of Venice, there are, as is typical of Shakespeare, several different themes. One that emerges at the beginning and is present throughout the rest of the play is anti-semitism. Many of the people of Shakespeare\'s time shared the belief that Jewish people were inferior to Christians, a belief reaching far back to ancient times. To these prejudiced people, the Jewish character of Shylock appears to posses the typica
Space CampSpace Camp Do you want to go to Space Camp this summer? This question arose during a conversation with my mother when I was in seventh grade. I actually thought she was just joking when she first said it. She told me she wanted me to experience immersion in another culture and language. When she was in college, she had received an opportunity to go to America, but she had to give up this chance because her mother became sick. As a result, she strongly recommended that I take this trip. However
Sports in the middle agessports in the middle ages Sports In The Middle Ages Standing in thick forestry waiting for the right moment , waiting for the right time, waiting for the right falcon to step into his clutches, man gets anxious as the falcon gets closer and closer. This is his chance, it’s almost there, WHAP!! Trapped, this is only the beginning of a pastime of flying, diving, and rewarding killing. Falconry as well as other sports in the medieval time period were huge pastimes for men. From falconry to fencing
The Heart of DarknessThe Heart of Darkness The Heart of Darkness Symbolism has long been a tool of the storyteller, finding its origins in the folklore of our earliest civilizations. In more recent years, however, symbolism has taken on a new role, forming the skeleton upon which the storyteller builds the tales of his or hers thoughts and adventures. Knowing the power of this element, Joseph Conrad uses symbols to help the reader explore dark interiors of men. The symbols become a vehicle that carry the audience fr
The Lord of the Flies thematic essayThe Lord of the Flies thematic essay As mankind has progressed throughout history, his idea of god has changed with his domination of nature and nature’s elements. When man made the transition from a Paleolithic to a Neolithic lifestyle, his mastery of nature attained a higher level because of the bow and arrow. With the bow and arrow, man could now control animals, because the bow became an extremely efficient way of dealing with animals before they could come close enough to kill. The gods of
The OpressedThe Opressed The Oppressed Dr. Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States might be better titled A Proletarian’s History of the United States. In the first three chapters Zinn looks at not only the history of the conquerors, rulers, and leaders; but also the history of the enslaved, the oppressed, and the led. Like any American History book covering the time period of 1492 until the early 1760’s, A People’s History tells the story of the “discovery” of America, early colonization by E
BeerBeer Historically hops, yeast, malted barley, and water have all played the greatest and most important role in society. For almost 8000 years these ingredients have been mixed and have been appreciated by all classes of society in almost all civilizations. The old cliche accident is the mother of invention is a phrase that definitely holds true in the world of beer. The discovery was made way back when the Mediterranean region was the seat of civilization and barley flourished as a dietary st
Truth and Consequences- Taking Advantage of the LoTruth and Consequences- Taking Advantage of the Loser Truth and Consequences: Taking Advantage of the Loser ßill Koneski January 4, 1997 Western Civilizations Although the costs and strain that World War I placed on the countries involved in it were unimaginable, the peace treaty Germany was forced to sign was neither fair nor just. Millions upon millions of men lost their lives or were wounded and women and children suffered from not having and positive male influence and being forced into manu
Where Is AtlantisWhere Is Atlantis ATLANTIS Where is it? Atlantis was an ancient civilization which was destroyed in one massive explosion. Many people have searched for Atlantis but it has still not been found. According to Plato, a Greek philosopher, Atlantis was located in the Atlantic Ocean past the pillars of Hercules, the Strait of Gibraltar. Plato has been credited with many scientific discoveries, but Atlantis’s existence is still unproved. “Plato, one of the fathers of western thought, is out sole direc
Willa Sibert CatherWilla Sibert Cather Willa Sibert Cather was an early twentieth century writer. She wrote about the qualities of courage, sensitivity, and perseverance. Most often, her novels and short stories took place in rural townships. She was born sometime in 1873, in her grandmother\'s house. She was named after an Aunt Willela who had died; however, she chose to believe that her name was derived from her grandparent\'s names. She was the first child of Charles Fectigue and Mary Cather. Willa was the olde
Business EthicsBusiness Ethics Business Ethics From a business perspective, working under government contracts can be a very lucrative proposition. In general, a stream of orders keep coming in, revenue increases and the company grows in the aggregate. The obvious downfalls to working in this manner is both higher quality expected as well as the extensive research and documentation required for government contracts. If a part fails to perform correctly it can cause minor glitches as well as problems that can c
Heart of DarknessHeart of Darkness The framing narrative of Heart of Darkness is presented by an unnamed, undefined speaker, who is one of a group of men, former sailors, now professionals, probably middle-aged, on the deck of a yacht at the mouth of the Thames River, London England. The time is probably contemporary with the writing and publication of the novel, so around the turn of the 20th century. One among the group, Charlie Marlow, a mysterious figure who is still a sailor, tells the story of something th
The Zen Of ZinnThe Zen Of Zinn Dr. Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States might be better titled A Proletarian’s History of the United States. In the first three chapters Zinn looks at not only the history of the conquerors, rulers, and leaders; but also the history of the enslaved, the oppressed, and the led. Like any American History book covering the time period of 1492 until the early 1760’s, A People’s History tells the story of the “discovery” of America, early colonization by European pow
EgyptiansEgyptians Did the early Egyptians have help in building the pyramids? All over the world remain fantastic objects, vestiges of people or forces which the theories of archaeology, history, and religion cannot explain. There is something inconsistent about our archaeology. They have found electric batteries many thousands of years old. They have found strange beings in perfect space-suits with platinum fasteners. They have also found numbers with fifteen digits- something not registered by any c
TrigonometryTrigonometry Trigonometry uses the fact that ratios of pairs of sides of triangles are functions of the angles. The basis for mensuration of triangles is the right- angled triangle. The term trigonometry means literally the measurement of triangles. Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that developed from simple measurements. A theorem is the most important result in all of elementary mathematics. It was the motivation for a wealth of advanced mathematics, such as Fermat\'s Last Theorem and t
CloningCloning A few years ago if you were to ask someone about the possibilities of cloning they would most likely say it was impossible. This attitude towards cloning has been held into belief up until recently when scientists in Scotland cloned a sheep. And immediately after scientists in Oregon cloned a monkey (Fackelmann 276). The most major breakthroughs of the century in science has occurred and we are not ready for it. The scientific breakthrough of cloning has caused a great deal of controvers
Life of Octopus DofleiniLife of Octopus Dofleini Introduction This is a research report on octopuses in general, however will focus in on a particular species of octopus, the North Pacific Giant or octopus dofleini , which is a bottom dwelling octopus that lives on coasts of the pacific ocean, from California to north Japan. This report will cover the habitat, and lifestyle of this amazing mollusk, that is so often misunderstood. The octopus is a very intelligent, and resourceful invertebrate whose natural abilities sh
UFOsUFOs Little Green Men, Martians, Outer Limits ! That is what people think about when aliens and UFOs come to mind. Aliens have been around, as far as we can see, since 1561. The question is now asked, How come because they [UFOs] have been sighted, encountered, and taken hostage; Why have we been kept in the dark by our governments? Since UFOs were considered a security risk, the report on these sightings was originally classified as secret (Kadrey 22). The name \'flying saucer\' was \'c
Asimov On Chemistry by Isaac AsimovAsimov On Chemistry by Isaac Asimov The Book Asimov on Chemistry by Isaac Asimov is a collection of seventeen essays that he wrote for The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction. This book is one of ten that were published by Doubleday & Company, Inc. Not all of the books centered on chemistry and like science. Most just covered anything Isaac Asimov wondered about. These Essays date back quite aways with a range from January 1959 to April 1966. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY The Weighting Game This i fou
The Orgins of Atomic TheoryThe Orgins of Atomic Theory By Levi Pulkkinen There is an eternal human compulsion to unlock the mysteries of our lives and our world. This search for knowledge has guided us to many beneficial new understandings. It has lead us into this new age where information is its own reward, an age where enlightenment is an end, not simply a means to an end. Enlightenment has been the aim of many great people. It has inspired many scientists and artists to construct articles of infinite beauty and value.
Common Viral ColdCommon Viral Cold My report is on the common viral cold, I would like to go talk about how it is cought, its symptoms and how to cure it as quick as possible. The common cold is cought by coming in contact with some one who has the virus, thus the cold is cought through direct contact, from one infected person to the next, or from, Being in side in the winter time with the heater on all the time, the lack of air flow is a great place for air born particles to sit and rest up the heaters on only
Atlantis - Will we ever knowAtlantis - Will we ever know Atlantis Atlantis: We will ever know Fantasy is a tough sell in the twentieth century. The world has been fully discovered and fully mapped. Popular media has effectively minimized the legend and the fantastic rumor, though to make up for this it has generated falsities not as lavish but just as interesting. Satellites have mapped and studied the earth, leaving only a space frontier that is as yet unreachable. But standing out is a charming fantasy the modern world h
Comparison of Rome and GreeceComparison of Rome and Greece Legacies: In the ancient days, when culture, as well as civilizations were developing, many things came to be known as options for later cultures. Civilizations had different ways of doing things and therefore each of their cultures differed considerably. The Romans, the Greeks and the Hebrews all presented different legacies to the world. The Romans actually gave a legacy from their political, and economic systems. From the political system they gave us two forms o
Differences in EducationDifferences in Education Jo Smith Differences in Education There are many differences and similarities in education in Greece and The United States of America today. The differences, which there are many of, are focused on the different ideas of what is important in our different countries. The similarities are basic in an education and to have a successful country which both do have to be the same. Greece and the U.S. have only four major similarities which are common to a good education. First
Different ReligionsDifferent Religions Since the dawn of man, people have had their own forms of religion. Be it simple ceremonial burial or complex blessing rituals, each person had their own way to explain the wonders of nature like, how did we come here and what our purpose here was. Another thing that each individual person had was their own morals. Morals are what define a civilization. Labels like peaceful or barbaric are put on different civilizations because of their morals. The morality of each civilizati
Religious BeliefsReligious Beliefs Today\'s religious beliefs, governmental structures, laws and traditions of social behavior find their roots in the development of three main belief systems - Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Although other religious movements have developed throughout the years, these three belief systems have had the most impact on civilizations of the West. To better understand this impact, it is important to trace the development of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and review the relations
Freud and MarxFreud and Marx Freud and Marx it can be argued were both, as individuals, dissatisfied with their societies. Marx more plainly than Freud, but Freud can also be seen as discontent in certain aspects such as his cynical view of human nature. Each were great thinkers and philosophers, but both seemed unhappy. Perhaps the social ills and trouble each perceived in the world about them were only the reflections of what each of the thinkers held within themselves. Each person observes the same world,
Analysis of the Human Cultural IdentityAnalysis of the Human Cultural Identity This paper is intended to contain the analysis of the human cultural identity, as seen in the following five historical cultural periods: Enlightenment Culture; Greco-Roman Culture; Judeo-Christian Culture; Renaissance-Reformation Culture; and Industrialization-Modernism Culture. It also embodies examples of each era that are clearly stated, and how they relate to the cultural period. The cultural identity of the Enlightenment can be described as emphasizi
Do We Have Souls?Do We Have Souls? On the question of \'Do we have souls\' and \'Can they survive after death\', this writer will attempt a reasoned explanation and defense of my views to this philosophical question. After careful explanation of my own views , thoughts, and careful examination of the selected materials for this paper; I have come to this conclusion: unlike the problem of free will, the question of human beings having souls and their survival after the physical body is deceased, is not an easily
Does Science Explain All?Does Science Explain All? In the beginning there was darkness. Then there was light. Then there was consciousness. Then there were questions and then there was religion. Religions sprouted up all over the world as a response to some of humanity\'s most troubling questions and fears. Why are we here? Where do we come from? Why does the world and nature act as it does? What happens when you die? Religions tended to answer all these questions with stories of gods and goddesses and other supernatura
Panopticon: The Ideal Social OrderPanopticon: The Ideal Social Order Chris Carlson English 1-53 The Panopticon is a marvelous machine which, whatever use one may wish to put it to, produces homogenous effects of power. Panopticism is a style of controlling the individual and making him conform to the system. That system could refer to the police or the world as a whole. There is never a definite top position, therefore, everyone feels as if they are being monitored by someone else. It is for this reason that this disciplinary
The Role Of LanguageThe Role Of Language The Role of Language Can contemporary discourse presume a community of interest? In order to answer this question, one is forced to first answer the question, can language be used to reveal anything new? If the answer is yes, then how can it do this and how can we employ it to do this for us. Also, one is forced to ask what is it exactly that we are looking for? Once we’ve found it, how can we use it to improve our present condition? Plato and Descartes both believe that lan
Atlantisatlantis Atlantis Atlantis: We will never know Fantasy is a tough sell in the twentieth century. The world has been fully discovered and fully mapped. Popular media has effectively minimized the legend and the fantastic rumor, though to make up for this it has generated falsities not as lavish but just as interesting. Satellites have mapped and studied the earth, leaving only a space frontier that is as yet unreachable. But standing out is a charming fantasy the modern world has yet to verify or
Pallas Athene versus MinervaPallas Athene versus Minerva Pallas Athene Versus Minerva The Goddess Athena has been an incredibly well-liked mythological character for centuries because of her complex personality and the values which are taught through her actions. The powerful Goddess has been generally thought of as being the same person in both Greek and Roman stories alike, but this is not true. Athena was looked upon and spoken of very differently in Roman and Greek myths, though she remains with the same basic personal
The Riddle of the SphinxThe Riddle of the Sphinx The Riddle of the Sphinx The study of myths probably began in the 4th century. BC. when Euthemerus explained them as exaggerated adventures of historical individuals. The allegorical interpretation of myths , stemming from the 18th century study , says that at one time myths were invented by wise men to point out a truth, but after a time myths were taken literally. The linguistic corruption interpretation says that myths could be understood as allegory for events found
An Unsuccessful IndiaAn Unsuccessful India India is one of the worlds oldest and richest civilizations, the treasure chest of the Far East, and the desire of all the great powers of Europe. After years of battle it ended up under the control of Britain, making it the most precious jewel in the crown of the Empire . Yet for India, the rule of the British did not bring promises of rebuilding a nation. Rather, it brought new dilemmas to face the Indian people. The British constantly exploited the nation for its prime r
Architecture of the Renaissance reflects the earliArt Architecture of the Renaissance reflects the earlier works of the Roman, Byzantines, Moslems, and many other civilizations. The S. Pietro No. 1 was begun in 1564 and was designed by Michelangelo Buonarroti, and Carlo Maderna. Many components of this structure reflect their foreign influences. The large, ominous dome along with the two smaller, less intimidating ones confirm the Byzantine style had entered the Renaissance. Grand, elaborate columns demonstrate Roman and Greek style of temples.
BaseballBaseball Baseball is a game of skill that is played with a hard ball and a bat between two teams of nine players each at a time on the playing field at once. Although many different people play Baseball all over the world it is most popular in the United States. It is so popular in fact, it is referred to as the national pastime of the United States because of the tradition and popularity associated with the game. Baseball consists of many complicated rules. It also has a very elaborate history.
British Lit Term PaperBritish Lit Term Paper The definition of the word Utopia is defined as a place or state of ideal perfection (A Dictionary of the English Language 1575). How can a society reach a point of Utopia? Although many countries have tried to achieve such a goal, they have been unable to attain a state of perfection. In 1984, written by George Orwell, government takes control of every aspect of person’s life in an attempt to achieve perfection . In Childhood’s End, written by Arthur C. Clarke, the human
KING TUTKING TUT TOMB OF TUTANKHAMUN The most famous Egyptian pharaoh today is, King Nebkheperuru Tutankhamun. Tutankhamun is also known as King Tut. The name “Tutankhamun” is derived from hieroglyphics which means “Living Image of Amun.” He was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, he also was the son in law of Akhenaton. Tutankhamun was not a important King, he is well known because of his tomb, containing beautiful treasures. King Nebkheperuru Tutankhamun’s tomb was discovered by an British archae
Massage TherapyMassage Therapy The practice of massage therapy is rapidly growing in the United States. It has numerous benefits to offer and is becoming more widely accepted as a medical practice by doctors and the general public. Massage is defined as: …the systematic manual or mechanical manipulations of the soft tissues of the body by such movements as rubbing, kneading, pressing, rolling, slapping, and tapping, for therapeutic purposes such as promoting circulation of the blood and lymph, relaxation of mu
Capital Punishment: AgainstCapital Punishment: Against The use of capital punishment has been a permanent fixture in society since the earliest civilizations and continues to be used as a form of punishment in countries today. It has been used for various crimes ranging from the desertion of soldiers during wartime to the more heinous crimes of serial killers. However, the mere fact that this brutal form of punishment and revenge has been the policy of many nations in the past does not subsequently warrant its implementat
Capital PunishmentCapital Punishment Law&Justice Class Senior Year Mr. Carlisle Law and Justice 18 March 1995 The theory a life for a life is as old as civilization itself (McCiellan 9). The development of civilizations established what we call justice today. Capital punishment, the execution of a criminal convicted of a crime, or the legal taking of the life of a criminal, can be divided into three categories: first, crimes against the person; second, crimes against property; and third, crimes which endanger