Drug Abuse

this study guide is a suggestion on which areas to focus on for the
midterm; ask your TA if you have questions or need clarification!
terms that are *ed are those which require knowing the definition of the
term only, unless otherwise noted
items not listed on the study guide will NOT be covered on the exam
Chapters 1 & 2 material
 psychoactive drug*
Having effects on thoughts, emotions or behavior
 the four pharmacological revolutions
1. Vaccines – Pasteur, Jenner, and Koch – Convince public that medicine is very powerful in benefiting people
2. Antibiotics – curing or preventing diseases, penicillin
3. Psychopharmacology – the study of the behavioral effects of drugs, on mind, emotions, and perceptions such as schizophrenia
4. Oral contraceptive – drugs used by healthy people to gain chemical control over their own bodies
 the four types of drug-induced toxicity
1. Acute – short term effects of a single dose
2. Chronic – long term effects of repeated use
3. Behavioral – resulting from the behavioral effects of a drug
4. Physiological – physical effects on body
 DAWN - what it is and what it measures, the limitations of DAWN as a reporting system, and the top three drugs on the DAWN lists - total deaths from illicit drugs compared with those from alcohol alone and cigarettes alone
Drug Abuse Warning Network – Collects data on drug related crises from hospital emergency rooms around the country
DAWN does not correct for frequency of use
1. Alcohol-in-combination
2. Cocaine
3. Heroin/Morphine
Alcohol deaths = 100,000
Cigarette deaths = 400,000
Illicit deaths = 15,000
 relationships between crime and drug use - what are they
1. Drug causes crime
2. Drug use might cause criminal behavior when the person in under the influence
3. Crimes carried out for the purpose of obtaining $ to purchase illicit drugs
4. Illicit drug use is a crime

Article 38 - be able to recognize the main examples given in each category of the drug problem as given by this author (specifically within the crime, economy, health, international politics, morality and civil liberties sections)
 what is the author’s position on legalization of drugs?
 do not need to know the specific numbers given for costs of drugs

Chapters 5 & 6 material
 the life-cycle of a neurotransmitter, how chemical signaling occurs
 how drugs work in this chemical signaling process (e.g. cocaine prevents reuptake of dopamine), also section on p.125 on possible mechanisms of drug actions
 limbic/mesolimbic systems and their roles in reward, pleasure center
 know the major neurotransmitters and their general actions in the CNS
 dose-response curve/relationship*
 potency*
 routes of administration - know what they are, how they deliver drug to the CNS, their relative characteristics

Article 10 - need to know the various ways dopamine affects neurotransmitter actions (in specific, such as how cocaine works in achieving a high and influencing dependence)
 be able to recognize the article’s main points about addiction (the role of genes, the role of environment, role of dopamine, role of other factors)
 do not need to know the specific #s (for drug usage rates) given in article

Chapters 8 & 9 material
 barbiturates*, benzodiazapines*, phenothiazines/antipsychotics*
 uses of these three above groups clinically and recreationally
 the different levels of psychological and physical dependence of the three groups
 know the principles of dependence, withdrawal, and CNS actions in terms of dose and type (short v. long acting and quick v gradual time of onset) for barbiturates and benzodiazepines
 methaqualone section
 date rape drug section
 inhalants - know the general types and the health effects associated with use, reasons for using
 mechanism of action of the antipsychotics (i.e. blocking receptors for the neurotransmitters)

Chapters 10 & 11 material
 metabolism - do not need to know specifics, but know role of liver and the rate of alcohol elimination
 the specific effects of varying BAC on behaviors (e.g. Table 10.2)
 know how to calculate BAC if given amount of drinks, what type of drink, and how long drinking, if then given info from chart of BAC and amount of drinks associated with that BAC for a given weight/gender (e.g. - if a 200 lb male consumes 10 cans of beer in 4 hours, what is BAC (given the chart section of: 1 beer, .019; 2 beers, .037; 4 beers, .070; 6 beers, .110; 8 beers, .150; 10 beers, .180) answer - after 4 hours, liver has eliminated .25 oz/hr