Driving Offences

My research paper is on "Drinking and Driving Offences". In my paper I will tell you the various kinds of drinking and driving offences, the penalties, and the defenses you can make if you are caught drinking and driving.
Let me tell you about the different offences. There are six offences in drinking and driving. They are "driving while impaired", "Having care and control of a vehicle while impaired","Driving while exceeding 80 m.g.", "Having care and control of a vehicle while exceeding 80 m.g.", "Refusing to give a breath sample", and "Refusing to submit to a roadside screen test." These are all Criminal Code Offences.(Erwin p17)
Now lets talk about the penalties of drinking and driving. The sentence for refusing to give a breath sample is usually higher than either of the exceeding 80 m.g. offences. Consequently it is usually easier in the long run for you to give a breath sample if asked. If, for example you are convicted of "Refusing to give a breath sample" for the first time, but was earlier convicted of "Driving while impaired", your conviction for "Refusing" will count as a second conviction, not a first,and will receive the stiffer penalty for second offences.(Erwin p18)
For the first offence here is the penalty and the defenses you can make. Driving a vehicle while your ability to drive is impaired by alcohol or drugs is one of the offences. Evidence of your condition can be used to convict you. This can include evidence of your general conduct, speech, and ability to walk a straight line or pick up objects. The penalty of the first offences is a fine of $50.00 to $2000.00 and/or imprisonment of
up to six months, and automatic suspension of license for three months. The second offence penalty is imprisonment for fourteen days to one year and automatic suspension of license for six months. The third offence penalty is imprisonment for three months to two years (or more) and automatic suspension of license for six months. These penalties are the same for the following offences.(Purich p22)
"Having Care and Control of a Motor Vehicle while Impaired" is another offence. Having care and control of a vehicle does not require that you be driving it. Occupying the driver\'s seat, even if you did not have the keys, is sufficient. Walking towards the car with the keys could be sufficient. Some defenses are you were not impaired, or you did not have care and control because you were not in the driver\'s seat, did not have the keys, etc. It is not a defense that you registered below 80 m.g. on the breathalyzer test. Having care and control depends on all circumstances.(Purich p24)
Driving While Exceeding 80 m.g. is the next offence. Driving a vehicle, having consumed alcohol in such a quantity that the proportion of alcohol in your blood exceeds 80 milligrams of alcohol in 100 milliliters of blood. Some defenses are the test was administered improperly, or the breathalyzer machine was not functioning properly.(Erwin p20)
"Having Care and control of a Motor Vehicle while Exceeding 80 m.g," is the next offence I will talk about. This offence means having care and control of a vehicle whether it is in motion or not, having consumed alcohol in such a quantity that
the proportion of alcohol in your blood exceeds 80 milligrams of alcohol in 100 milliliters of blood. The defenses are the test was administered improperly, or the breathalyzer machine was not functioning properly. To defend against breathalyzer evidence you must understand how the test should be administered. The proper procedure for a breathalyzer test is as follows. Warming up the machine until the thermometer registers 50 degrees centigrade. This should take at least 10 minutes. The machine should then be turned to zero (by using the "adjust zero control") and a comparison ampoule (of normal air) inserted. If the metre remains at zero, the test can proceed. An ampoule with a standard solution is then inserted. If the metre reads high or low by more than .02% on two successive tests, the machine should not be used. If the trial is valid, the machine should be flushed with room air and the pointer set at start. You will then be