Double Trouble Or Extra Special

Imagine having a twin that looks and acts exactly like you. Even more
interesting
this twin is a product of scientific cloning. If scientists have their way,
identical replicas
of human beings will be roaming the earth. This scientific vision may occur
a lot more
recent then many think. Cloning can be (better) understood by looking at
it’s definition,
process, and some examples.
This first step to better understanding cloning is to hear precisely what
it is.
Cloning can be defined as an organism or group of organisms derived from
another
organism by an asexual reproductive process. Usually members of a clone are
identical
in genes (Clarke, 1). Even though the definition is relatively simple, it
will be several
years before these projects will be technically feasible. Many species are
being
considered for cloning, but legal battles often halt the complex process
(Grossman, 1).
Knowledge of the definition of cloning helps one better understand its
difficult process.
The process of cloning is long and tedious and most uncommonly
unsuccessful.
After many years of failure to clone using adult animals, most scientists
started to think it
was too tough. However Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute in Scotland found
a new
successful method (World Book, 1). It should also be noted that adult males
have the
lowest success rate of cloning (Okimoto, 2). The actual process of cloning
is due to
recent advances of Genetic Engineering. Scientists can now isolate an
individual gene
from one organism and grow it in another organism belonging to a different
species
(Clarke, 1). While this is occurring a scientist can also take a cells
chromosomes and
nucleus, and inject them into a fertilized egg whose own nucleus has been
removed
(Clarke, 3). However another new process that was used to clone the worlds
most
famous sheep, is starting to be used more often. This new process involved
taking
mammary-gland cells from a sheep and starve them of growth, then electrically
inject an
egg which was later transplanted into a surrogate mother. Out of 300
attempts, only one
survived the process, Dolly a lamb born in 1996 (Worldbook, 1). The creation
of Dolly is
one of only a few examples that have ended in success . Having familiarity
with the
process of cloning helps one understand some cloning experiments.
With odds like one out of 300 (the Dolly experiment) successful clones,
good
examples of cloning are a rarity. However when a successful clone occurs it
is quite a
notable feat. One cloning project currently under way is a revival of the
Huia Bird. Once
native to New Zealand, but became extinct in the 1920’s. Mainly because the
Huias
large feathers became a “hot fashion accessory” (Grossman, 1). However in
order to
start the cloning process remnants of the birds cells or bones must first be
found
(Grossman, 1). Another example of an attempt to relive our past is due to
Larry
Agenbroad, a Northern Arizona University geologist, and his team of
international
scientists, who plan to clone a Woolly Mammoth from DNA remnants. The frozen
animal will be taken from Siberia and flown 200 miles. Once the beast
reaches its
destination the animal will be kept frozen in a tunnel. The eleven foot
animal will be
studies thoroughly, but the primary task is to extract DNA (Okimoto, 1).
This mission
has not been totally cleared yet, so while legalities, and other obstacles
are overcome,
the beast sits frozen in Siberia. As more cloning experiments are conducted,
the
success rate is climbing, and as success heightens more notable examples will
occur.
The science of cloning can at first be considered very frightening,
however once
one has a better understanding of this science through its definition,
process, and some
examples, one should realize that some great possibilities could occur in the
future.


Works Cited
Clarke, Bryan C. “Clone.” Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia. copyright 1999.
5 Oct.
1999 <http://www.Funkandwagnalls.com/encyclopedia/low/
articles/c/c005000866f.html>.
“Dolly and Other Cloning Breakthroughs Since 1996.” Worldbook.com.
copyright 1999.
12 Oct. 1999 <http://www.worldbook.com/fun/bth/cloning/html/dolly.htm>.
Grossman, Lev. “Extinct Animals to be Cloned.” Time Digital. 2 Oct. 1999.
3 Oct. 1999
<http://www.pathfinder.com/time/digital/daily/0,2822,28534,00.html>.
Okimoto, Jolyn. “Scientists Aim To Revive Extinct Beast.” Seattletimes.com.
2 Oct.
1999. 3 Oct. 1999 <http://seattletimes.com/news/health-science/html98/
wool_19991002.html>.


Outline
Thesis: Cloning can be (better) understood by looking at it’s
definition, process,
and some examples.
I. Definition
A. Cloning can be defined as an organism or group of organisms
derived
from another organism by an asexual reproductive process. Usually
members of
a clone are identical in genes.
II. Process
A. Adult males