Documentation of Competency


Objective: I


Atom - the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element


Example: the formation of a sodium chloride crystal


Molecule - The smallest part of any substance which has the qualities of that substance, and which can exist alone in a free state.


Example: a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen.


Organelle - A cell structure that carries out a specialized function in the life of a cell.


Example: the nucleus, chromosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton and vesicles.


Cell – Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independently or as part of multicelled organisms


Example: Malaria parasite


Tissue - a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function.


Example: Distribution of death domain containing protein genes


Organ - A part of the body that consists of different types of tissue and that performs a particular function.


Example: the kidneys, heart and brain.


Organ System – two or more organs interacting chemically, physically, or both in ways that contribute to organism’s survival.


Example: Nervous System and Digestive System


Multicelled Organism – individual consisting of interdependent cells typically organized in tissues, organs, and organ system.


Example: Modern vascular plant that is similar in structure.


Population – Group of individual of the same kind occupying the same area.


Example: a zebra herd


Community – populations of all species occupying the same area.


Example: the people of Bridgeport Connecticut


Ecosystem – Community and its physical environment.


Example: The people of Bridgeport and our surrounding.



Adipose Tissue Hyaline Cartilage



Smooth Muscle Cells Fibrocartilage



Digestive System


Objective II


Atomic Number – the number of protons in a element


Atomic Weight – the average mass of the atoms of an element


Neutron – the particle in the atomic nucleus with the mass = 1 and charge = 0


Neutron


Protons – a component of an atomic nucleus with a mass defined as 1 and a charge of +1.


Protons


Electrons – a negatively charged component of an atom.


Electrons


Hydrogen – chemical element that exists as a gas at room temperature


Hydrogen


Carbon – nonmetallic chemical element known by the symbol C that is the fundamental building block of material in living organisms


Carbon


Oxygen – symbol O, colorless. Odorless, tasteless slightly magnetic gaseous element


Oxygen


Sodium – sodium Na, Highly reactive, silvery white extreme soft metallic element.


Sodium


Chlorine – symbol CI, greenish – yellow gaseous element.


Chlorine


Isotopes – atoms that are vary in neutron numbers


Isotopes – C14





























Isotopes – C12





Ions























Chloride Ion





Sodium Ion








11p+


10e-








Bonding


Ionic Bond – an association of two ions that have opposing charge.


NACI


Covalent Bond – sharing of a pair of electrons


Molecular Hydrogen


Polor Covalent Bond – atoms of different elements don’t exert the same pull on shared electrons.


Polarity of the water molecule water’s temperature – stabilizing effects water cohesion


Water solvent properties


Hydrogen Bonding – weak attraction between an electron negative atom and taking part in a second polar covalent bond.


Functional Group


Aldehydes


Alcohol -OH


Ketone


Organic Acid


Amino


Phosphate


Molecules and Macromolecules





Hydrophilic











Hydrophobic Tail


Condensation








Hydrolysis


Carbohydrates - A chemical compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Starch, sugar and cellulose are the most common carbohydrates that supply energy.


Monosaccharide - simple sugars consist of a single sugar molecule and cannot be further decomposed by hydrolysis.


Disaccharide - Sugars formed by the combination of two simple sugar units.


Polysaccharides - Complex sugars, consisting of multiple linked simple sugars.



Glucose Fructose


Galactose



Sucrose


Starch


Cellulose


Lipids – Hydrophobic that’s the one property they have in common. This group of molecules includes fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids and some other related compounds.


Fatty Acids



Steroids



Bile- liver secretion required for fat digestion.


Emulsification – of chime a suspension of fat droplet coated with bile salts.


Proteins – organic compound of one or more polypeptide chains folded and twisted into a globular or fibrous shape overall.


Amino Acid


R Groups – side chains that have functional groups each type of side chains contributes in a major way to distinctive properties of each amino acid


Primary Structure – when a cell synthesizes a protein, enzymes link amino acids, one after the other by peptide bond.


Denaturation – breaking weak bonds of a protein or any other large molecule disrupts its three dimensional shape.


Enzymes – the type of protein or one of the few RNAs that catalyze reactions between substances, most often at functional group, enzymes also breaks down the food in our body.


Nucleic acid – single or double stranded chain of four