DISEASES ASSIGNMENT

Q: 1Simple precautions to prevent food poisoning (20marks)

1.Donít leave your food outside or near heat unless youíre cooking it.


2.Make sure your food is clean.


3.Make sure the surface that you cook on is clean.


4.Make sure your food is properly rapped and or kept in a container.


5.Make sure you are using fresh food.


6.Make sure your not allergic to any of the ingredients in the food.


7.Make sure people donít cough or sneeze over the food.


8. Donít eat green eggs and ham. Ha ha ha!!!!!!

Q: 2
Immunization pamphlet (30marks)


I have enclosed the immunization pamphlet in the plastic pocket.

Q: 3
10 virus questions and answers (30marks)


Q


What\'s the difference between bacteria and viruses?


A


Viruses are tiny geometric structures that can only reproduce inside a living cell. Viruses are more similar to mechanized bits of information, or robots, than to animal life.


Bacteria are one-celled living organisms.


All bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall. They can reproduce independently, and inhabit virtually every environment on earth, including soil, water, hot springs, ice packs, and the bodies of plants and animals.


Q


What are vaccines?


A


Vaccines are preparations that contain an antigen consisting of whole disease-causing organisms, or parts of such organisms, and are used to provide immunity against he disease.


Q


What infectious diseases do we have a vaccine for?


A


There are vaccines for the following diseases; anthrax, cholera, diphtheria, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, meningococcal, rubella, rabies, tetanus, typhoid, yellow fever and pertussis.


Q


What are the forms of vaccines we use today?


A


Killed organisms (heat killed bacteria or viruses, e.g.).


Live attenuated bacteria or viruses - "cousins" of a disease-causing strain allows the body to develop an immune response without actually making you sick.


Purified macromolecules - some protein of importance required by an infecting virus or microbe to successfully colonize the host and cause disease. The molecule itself does not cause disease, but if the body can create antibodies against it, it can possibly fend off an infection from the whole organism.


DNA-coated gold beads - genetic sequences from an organism.


Q


How do bacteria replicate?


A


Bacteria are one-celled living organisms. All bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall. They can reproduce independently, and inhabit virtually every environment on earth, including soil, water, hot springs, ice packs, and the bodies of plants and animals.


Q


How do fungi differ from bacteria?


A


Fungi differ from bacteria in that bacteria do not have organized nuclei or other membrane-bound organelles (i.e., they are prokaryotes). Bacterial cell walls do not contain chitin and glucans.


Q


What is the difference between an antibiotic and an antiseptic?


A


Antibiotics kill bacteria, whereas antiseptics merely inhibit make it harder for them to grow.


Q


What is a disinfectant?


A


Disinfectant as a chemical (commonly chlorine, chloramines, or ozone) or physical process (e.g., ultraviolet light) that kills microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.


Q


What cells does HIV infect?


A


A healthy body is equipped with CD4 helper lymphocyte cells (CD4 cells). These cells help the immune system to function normally and fight off certain kinds of infections. They do this by acting as messengers to other types of immune system cells, telling them to become active and fight against an invading infection.


The HIV virus attaches to these CD4 cells, infects them, and uses them to replicate. In doing so, the virus destroys the ability of the infected cells to do the job of helping transmit messages to other cells of the immune system. The body then loses the ability to fight many infections.


Q


What diseases can immunizations prevent?


A


Immunizations can prevent-



o Polio
o Measles
o Mumps
o Rubella (or German measles)
o Diphtheria
o Tetanus
o Whooping cough
o Meningitis
o Chicken pox
o Hepatitis B Q: 4
3d model of an influenza virus (40marks)


The 3d model of an influenza virus is enclosed in the plastic pocket.