Diabetes


This disease is caused by defective carbohydrate metabolism. It causes
large amounts of sugar in the blood and urine. It can damage the kidneys, heart,
eyes, limbs, and endanger pregnancy. About five percent of the United States
population has it and about half are undiagnosed. A diabetic that is treated
life span is lowered by one-third
There are two types of diabetes. Type I, insulin-dependent diabetes
mellitus (IDDM). And type II, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
Type I
This type usually occurs in children and young adults, it is known as
one of the autoimmune diseases. It is 10-15 percent of all cases. The pancreas
lets out insulin that lets sugar glucose into all tissues in the body and in
this type of diabetes most or all of this insulin is not made. So all the extra
glucose is let out through urine. If untreated this type could be fatal quickly.
The body cannot get enough energy from tissue glucose so it starts to break
down stored fat. With this people loose a lot of weight and they have fatigue.
Your blood becomes acidic and respiration becomes abnormal. People usually die
from diabetic coma until they figured out how to use insulin therapy. In both
forms it could cause a kidney disease from high blood sugar levels; bad sight
from blood vessels in eyes rupturing, less blood going to the limbs could make
them have to cut them off. They have high blood pressure which increases heart
attacks and strokes in diabetes too. Type II
This type is found in mostly in people over 40 it progresses slowly
unlike type I. The insulin in the pancreas is produced in good levels but does
not work right. It does not let the glucose in to the tissues just like in type
I. The people in type II are usually over weight. Treatment
The treatment for both types is insulin injections and changes in their
diet. They must spread out every thing that they eat in a day so they sugar
comes in slow. For type II they have to loose weigh and exercise more. Some
people test their own blood sugar levels throughout the day and have insulin
pumps.

DIABETES Robert Quinn Brick Memorial High School January 23, 1997

Category: Science