Depression and Smoking


PSY-101


The objective shown in this psychological study was a close examination of the connection between depression and smoking. The psychologists found out or made an educated guess that a larger percentage of psychiatric patients were smokers and this percentage was higher than it was in the common population. They believed and thought that there might be a relationship between smoking and anxiety disorders or some kind or connection between them, even though there are no proofs or evidences of that theory. But the studies have been done and some conclusions have been made that smokers are more likely to suffer major depression and the severity depends on the severity of the smoking. Another explanation that they have concluded after is that there is only a casual link to with smoking and depression. Smoking and depression are an effects of human nature to alter their minds and nicotine is and easy legal drug to get which provides that service.


The group of two hundred and seventy patients, smoker and non-smokers, were analyzed and examined. Similar patients were paired off with people in similar age groups and gender, with smoking or non-smoking being the only difference. They didn’t use random assignment for this one; instead they used this method so it would make the differences easier to distinguish. The experimental group was ninety-two depressed smokers and the control group was ninety-two depressed non-smokers. The smoker’s average age was surprisingly lower than the average age of the non-smokers. They were compared and distributed into groups according to age, gender, and diagnostic variables. Some comparisons were also made through family history, developmental factors, and anxiety history if any. Their child hood environment was also taken into consideration. They used Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Costello-Convey trait to describe their depression symptoms from absent to most severe. They used these methods and more in order to analyze and interpret every patient’s depressive symptoms.


The final explanation was given in the introduction was analyzed and pursued in this journal article. Psychologists came up with the theory that social and behavioral factors in smokers can be a reason for depression. This explanation suggests that there is a link between smoking crowed and sever depression. Also some other social problems like, physical and verbal abuse, biological parent, divorce in family and many other contributes. Home and schools are the great sources of verbal abuse. They also thought that they might see connections with ADHD, conduct disorders, high school dropouts, and alcoholics. They also did some special research on those disorders but not wanted results found, because there were also many other strong factors like home, school, lifestyle and many more were contributing.


The depressive smokers were more likely to be divorced or separated and have other social problems. They had fewer years of education and were less likely to have a job. There was not any evidence of depression in the history of the depressive smokers family which was the opposite of what was assumed in the pre-experimental background. But they were more likely to suffer abuse in their childhood, which could imply that the parents had disorders, but never were treated. According to studies the depressive smokers didn’t have strong relation with there parents. They dislike their parents due to the fact they felt unsupported and unloved. The depressive non-smokers were more likely to be truant to school, but they did not suffer from school phobia. They did however suffer from social phobia and would try to avoid social situations at all times. The depressive non-smokers scored less on personality tests, which means they would then to have fewer friends. This, however, does not mean that smokers have a good friend that basically means that they have high quantity, but probably are low quality. It was also discovered that depressive smokers were more likely to leave work and go on welfare, than the depressive non-smokers. The results ended their variation on those terms, because the smokers had the same range of scores on the depression test as their counterparts. The depressive smokers were also more likely to use illegal, mind-altering drugs such as LSD, cocaine, ecstasy, and marijuana. They also are more likely to become alcoholics, even though alcohol it self is a depressant. The results also