D&M Pyramid



EPOB 3940


Draft Issue


•Introduction


In 1976, the Viking mission to Mars obtained images of the Martian surface of an area known as the Cydonia. In analyzing these images, Vincent DiPietro and Gregory Molenaar, image interpreters from NASA, discovered an unusual formation in the form of a human face, dubbed The Face. While some believed that this was an ancient, artificially created structure, many dismissed it as a natural formation. Inspired by these findings, astronomer and former NASA consultant Richard C. Hoagland organized the “Independent Mars Investigation” in 1983 to further study and analyze the images obtained from the Viking mission. In the investigation, Hoagland discovered and studied other formations inconsistent with Martian geology including the “City”, a cluster polyhedral objects with a rectangular arrangement and a center of axis pointing at the face, and the D&M Pyramid (named after DiPietro and Molenaar who first noticed it), an immense pyramidal structure, nearly 3 km in length and 1 km high. Hoagland worked with the Stanford Research Institute to study higher quality images of the D&M Pyramid, and found the structure to be a five sided, bilaterally symmetrical pyramid with it’s axis of symmetry also pointing to the face. While there is no concrete evidence that the D&M Pyramid was built by ancient extraterrestrial beings, I believe that studies conducted on the formation give strong evidence that it is indeed an artificially constructed or modified formation. Studies on the geomorphological processes of Mars have been shown to be inconsistent with the characteristics of the D&M Pyramid, and analyses of the geometry of the pyramid have revealed mathematically significant numbers that may suggest intelligent design.


•Geomorphology


The D&M pyramid has been studied by a number of scientists who have considered the different natural processes that could have caused the formation. These processes are fluvial deposition, volcanism, aeolian deposition, and crystal growth.


Fluvial Deposition


The discovery of drainage channels consistent with formation by water by the Mariner 9 mission has shown evidence that liquid water once flowed on Mars. Fluvial deposition is responsible for many of the symmetrical formations on Mars such as the numerous teardrop shaped islands in ancient streambeds, but can not account for the symmetry of the D&M pyramid. Quite recently, the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey mission found evidence to support the existence of an ancient cean in Mars’ northern hemisphere where Cydonia is located, and found that the City, Face, and D&M Pyramid are located near the 0 km datum; sea level (Head et. Al. 1999). Therefore, this indicates that there was no water flowage around the pyramid, much less the 1 km depth (the approximate height of the pyramid) necessary for fluvial deposition to form the structure.


Volcanism


While volcanism has been important in creating and modifying certain landforms on Mars, it is doubtful that the D&M Pyramid was formed by this process. Carr (1981) studied volcanism on Mars and found it to have been concentrated mainly in the Tharsis bulge, Elysium, and Hellas regions. However, he found no evidence of former volcanic activity in the Cydonia region where the D&M pyramid is located.


Aeolian Deposition


Since the disappearance of water and the cessation of volcanic activity on Mars, Aeolian deposition (erosion by wind) is now the principle means of geomorphic change on the planet. Aeolian deposition has been observed to have occasionally formed crescent and star-shaped dunes on Mars, known as barchans (Peterson 1992). However, they will never form symmetrical polyhedrons such as the D&M pyramid. However, there have been found pyramidal formations known as ventifacts, formed by the abrasive action of wind-driven airborne particles such as sand on rocks and other formations. In small ventifacts, the movement of a small rock exposes different surfaces of it to the wind, creating multiple sides. However, large, immovable ventifacts (which the D&M Pyramid would certainly fall under if it were indeed a ventifact) always only have three sides. The D&M pyramid exhibits five sides. Aeolian deposition is also responsible for roughly pyramidal formations known as yandyangs. However, yardyangs are customarily found to exist in a series of parallel ridges, beginning in low areas and diverging into separate hills, never in isolation.


Crystal Growth


Most naturally occurring, symmetrical polyhedra are formed through the process of crystal growth. On Mars, some scientists hypothesize that the freeze-thaw cycle