cuban missile crisis

The world was at the edge of a third world war. This was the result of a
variety of things: the Cuban Revolution, the failure of the Bay of Pigs
invasion, US anti-communism, and Cuba’s fear of invasion all made causes for
war. However, war was not the result due to great cooperation from both
President Kennedy and President Khrushchev and each of the decisions made by the
leaders was crucial in the outcome of The Crisis. Kennedy’s choice to take
action by means of quarantine instead of air strike and Khrushchev’s decision
to abide by the quarantines were perhaps the two most significant decisions made
by the leaders in order to prevent war. The Cuban Missile Crisis showed the
world that compromising and discussion can in-fact prevent war. The world had
almost seen another world war, the effects of which would have been devastating
because of the weapons involved. Humanity, indeed, was the prevention of the
war.

In Microsoft Encarta: The Cuban Revolution was a background cause to the
crisis. On January 1st, 1959 a Marxist regime in Cuba would have seemed
unlikely. In 1943 President Batista. appointed a communist to his Cabinet, as he
used communists as leaders of the labor unions. Batista started to fail the
Cuban communists and their loyalties transferred gradually to Castro. On
December 1st, 1961 Castro declared himself a Marxist and claimed he had always
been a revolutionary. Fearing that Castro would establish a Communist regime in
Cuba, the United States applied economic pressure, and in 1960 implemented an
embargo that cut off trade between the United States and Cuba. However, Castor
refused to give into the pressure and established closer relations with the
Communist government of the USSR.

Most Cubans idolized Castro, supported his government and at least accepted
his measures. He claimed to have a desire to help the poor and said he would
have found it impossible to follow the dictates of a single philosophy. His
first action in power was to reduce all rents on the island, making the
landowners, many of who were American, unhappy. In 1960 Castro was dominating
Cuba, and as a result many Cubans left, along with the American investors. There
was so much opposition to Castro’s developments that he created a Committee
for Defense of the Revolution out of fear of invasion from the US, internal
guerrilla uprisings, and black marketing “counterrevolutionary activity”.
Castro improved life in Cuba with communism; he managed to solve the problem of
unemployment, put in place universal schooling, provided free dental and medical
services, almost completely rid of malaria and polio from his country and
created a great nationalistic pride. Despite this entire great outcome, the
effect of the Revolution on America left the US sour.

Castro had taken away the profit producing properties, which had been owned
by Americans, and this angered them. In 1898 America gave many benefits to Cuba,
it helped modernize Cuban industry, education and medicine (partly due to
imperialistic greed from economic involvement) and expected loyalty for doing
so. Out of two million workers, the US only employed 70,000. Cuba was angered
that between 1945 and 1960 they gave more money than all of Latin America
combined. At first Americans gave Castro a good assessment, but President
Eisenhower’s government remained suspicious about communist success. Americans
lost site of the benefits the revolution had brought to Cuba and concentrated on
being angry with Cuba for expropriating American properties. On October 28, the
tension began to subside. In a worldwide radio broadcast, Khrushchev said he
would remove “offensive” weapons from Cuba in return for a U.S. pledge not
to invade. He also called for the United Nations inspectors to verify the
process. A further problem developed when Castro refused to allow Un oversight
of the sidmantiling process. Eventually an agreement was reached: The bombers
would be removed within 30 days, and the missiles and other “offensive”
weapons would be evacuated in the open so that U.S. surveillance aircraft could
observe their normal. The Revolution had severed ties between the US and Cuba,
which led to the Bay of Pigs invasion.

This article ends with a conclusion on both sides decided to retreat from
nuclear war. The Cuban missile crisis was a dangerous episode, bringing the
world’s major military powers to the edge of nuclear war. The crisis led to a
temporary strain in relations between USSR and Cuba. Castro felt he had been
unfairly excluded from the negotiations over the fate of the missiles, which he
thought Cuba needed to discourage a potential invasion from the United States.
The Cuban missile crisis marked the point at which the Cold War