Cross-sectional Research


Lesson 2


Short Answer


1. Describe how the cross-sectional research design differs from the longitudinal design. What do these two strategies have in common?


A cross-sectional research design is a research method in which groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time; longitudinal design is a research design that the same participants are observed repeatedly, sometimes over many years. The difference that a cross-sectional research design unlike longitudinal design is that cross-sectional design uses participants at certain age, and the participant will change into another group of age-interval; but the longitudinal design select participants and keep follow-up actions while the child is growing. The common part of the two strategies is that the two ways have to do research for participants for a long period of time, for instance, maybe 10 years.


6. Define attachment. Identify two infant behaviors that reflect whether a child is securely attached.


Attachment is the emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver. That is, a child will tend to love his/her babysitter rather than his/her own parents, assume that the parents hire babysitter to take good care of the baby for a long period of time per day. A securely attached children show some distress when the parents leave the room because the child will know his/her parents will return soon; and they will seek for proximity, comfort, and contact upon reunion, since it gives desire and harmony to the child.


7. What are the two important dimensions of parenting styles? How are these dimensions related to an authoritative parenting style?


The two important dimensions of parenting styles are demandingness and responsiveness. Demandingness refers to the parent’s willingness to act as a socializing agent, and responsiveness refers to the parent’s recognition of the child’s individuality. The demandingness of authoritative parents demand children conform to appropriate rules of behaviors, and the responsiveness keeps channels of communication open to foster their children’s ability to regulate themselves.


8. Identify and describe two of Erikson’s stages of development. Use one stage from childhood/adolescence and one from adulthood. Provide examples of each, using events from your life or the lives of people you know.


Two of Erikson’s stages of development are toddler at 2 years old, and adolescence from teen into 20’s. In the period as a toddler, a child learns to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities (autonomy and shame and doubt). For example, when I was a child, I had to learn to be dependent for a while when the parents are not there for such as 15 minutes, and I had to learn to use the bathroom rather than using diapers.


About the adolescence, a boy or a girl has to learn to work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are. For example, I have been learning how to cooperate with others, that I should share my own opinion with others instead of doing all the things by myself.


9. Identify three criticisms of Kohlberg’s stage of moral reasoning. Provide your own example of each.


The three criticisms are based on three biases in Kohlberg’s moral reasoning: age, sex, and culture. The age criticism is that Kohlberg had used only boys as his research subjects. In this way, Kohlberg’s principles are not suitable for adults because the adult moral judgments are recognized to be changed. For example, a child may think that killing a fatally-defeated baby is morally wrong; but in the eyes of adults, killing that baby may be moral because they have relieved the great pain of the baby. That is, children think differently from adults, and thus their moral reasoning should be different, which is not included in Kohlberg’s moral reasoning.


As for the sex, Kohlberg had used boys; no girls were included. Since it is believed that female mold their moral decisions to maintain harmony in their social relationships while male refer more to fairness, male and female should have different way of thinking, and hence they have different moral reasoning. For example, males may think that abortion is not moral because it refers to killing, but females may think that