Creation, Evolution and Intervention: Which Theory is Correct?


For: Mrs. Talbot bb
Class: Socioledgy88
Date Due: Oct. 9/96
By: Neel Ghelani89

For many years, it has been widely debated how modern man came about. In this
essay, I will explain the ideas of the three main theories: Evolution, Creation,
and Intervention. I will also discuss which theory I believe and why it is that
I believe it.

Evolution

Evolution, in biology, is the complex process by which organisms which
originated on earth change because of changes in their environment and their
function on earth. The earliest fossils ever discovered are from single celled
organisms which resemble today\'s bacteria. People who believe in evolution
believe that for approximately 3.4 billion years these single celled organisms
have changed and evolved into many different species including humans. This
theory also states that humans and other species continue to evolve today and
as a result of all these changes they will eventually become a totally different
species then what they are now. Evolutionists believe that evolution has created
many organisms spread across the globe, some of which have become extinct and
some of which are the plants and animals which live today.

The theory that groups of organisms can be transformed into different organisms
has been suggested many times since the early 1800s, when scientists began
looking for evidence that the evolution process took place. "The most
outstanding evolutionists in the nineteenth century was Jean Baptist de Lamarck,
who argued that the patterns of resemblance arose through modifications of a
common lineage-for example , that lions tigers and others all descendant from a
cat like ancestor." (Dickey p.42) It had already been a widely accepted theory
that different animals adapt to different modes of life and environmental
conditions. Lamarck argued that physical and mental changes occurred from animal
adaptations to different environments. Once the animal changed, Lamarck
believed that the changes would be passed on to the offspring through genes.
Unfortunately this theory was never really scientifically tested.

Charles Darwin successfully explained the evolutionary process , with his
famous book On The Origins of a Species by Means of Natural Selection. In this
book, Darwin stated that, in the environment organisms who have better qualities
such as being faster or trail scenting are more fit to survive. Consequently
they are able to take the vital ingredients required by unfit organisms such as
living space and food. Eventually, they kill off the unfit and unadapted. This
theory is best known as, survival of the fittest, and can be summarized in the
following statement. When environmental conditions change populations must
change in order to be fit and thus survive.

Understanding the evolutionary process depends a great deal upon the
interpretations of the fossil record, which many consider to be incomplete
because many fossils can not be found. For this reason, there are many different
views about what the fossil record states. One fact that puts doubt in the
evolution theory is that when a fossil appears in the fossil record it does so
very abruptly, and then stays their for several years. The fossil usually does
not show the gradual changes that take place in the evolution of species. For
this reason, Jay Gould of Harvard university developed a "punctured
equilibrium" theory stating that the changes do occur rather quicker than some
believe.

Creation

"The notion of creation is defined as the production of an existing thing out
of no preexisting material".(Dickey 237) In the bible and in other comparable
ancient literature, creation is a theme used to explain how human beings came to
earth. In the bible and most other creation stories from ancient religions,
the universe is said to be a great mess in which order was introduced by a God.
In the bible, it states that the creator cleaned up the world and organized
everything such as the stars and the day from night. In many ancient cultures
the stories tend to be similar and differ only in terms of places and figures.

Other ideas of creation include myths of emergence. According to the bible,
earth, all of its species and the universe were created less then 10 000 years
ago. The bible also stated this process took place in six days. It states that
man was created when god put two humans onto the earth, Adam and Eve. The bible
said that from these two people came the entire worlds population today. People
who believe the bible creation story word for word are called fundamentalists.


In the 1700s, James Usher disturbed many traditionalists with his theory that
the earth was probably more then ten thousand