Control Of Blood Glucose
Blood glucose is the primary source of energy in the human body, and is the only source of energy for the brain. The glucose is transported all over the body via the blood plasma and if there is too much present it is stored in the kidneys as glycogen (polysaccharide carbohydrate).


The level of blood glucose has to be maintained by the body. Too higher levels or too lower levels will cause problems in the body. The osmotic properties of the cell will be affected, if there are high amounts of glucose outside the cell and low amounts inside the cell, which will mean there are higher amounts of water inside the cell as there is outside the cell, so water will move out of the cell and the cells will begin to shrink. Another big problem is that the cells will not be able to respire properly as they will not have the correct amounts of energy. This can be particularly dangerous to the brain cells as their only source of energy comes from glucose. Cells take up the glucose through insulin this is secreted by the Islet B cells (β cells). When the cells do not secrete enough insulin the body cannot take up the glucose properly and problems will begin to occur.


When the production of insulin in the body starts to break down or if enough is not produced, problems will occur. This problem is classed as a disease Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes). There are 2 types of diabetes: type 1, diabetes also referred to as Juvenile- onset diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes. This type of diabetes starts at a young age and can cause many complications. The pancreas doesn’t secrete any insulin body this then causes the cues in the body not to accept any glucose, so the cell starts to metabolise. Se the next available energy source proteins and fats in the body (this process is know as gluconecgenesis), which leads to a build up of keto-acids in the body, these lower the PH in the body and this can lead to a person going in to a coma.


Type 1, diabetes can be caused by a genetic disorder where the genetic code for the production of insulin is not present or there is a deficiency in the genetic coding. The reason why this occurs is a person may get a specific virus and when the white blood cells go to destroy it they also destroy any infection and cells, if there is no cells present any insulin can be secreted. Type 2, diabetes is the other type of diabetes that can occur. This is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or maturity onset insulin. This type of diabetes is normally seen in lot patients and in obese people. Type 2, diabetes also seems to be passed on genetically. With this type of diabetes, insulin is produced from the pancreas but there isn’t enough or don’t respond receptors on the cells so only small amounts of glucose are taken in by the cells. This type of diabetes can go undetected for a long time and people will hardly notice it. Currently type 2, diabetes is being diagnosed is children a lot more, but this is believed to be linked with obesity. The symptoms are, the same for both types of diabetes mellitus.


The symptoms include:



o Tiredness- unable to concentrate
o Acidosis occurs- affects the PH and enzymes begin to denature.
o Muscle waste ages
o Loss in weight
o Constantly thirsty
Diabetes mellitus cannot be cured (at the moment) but both are treated differently. Type 1, diabetes is treated with regular insulin jabs. Type 2, diabetes can be treated through a balanced diet. In both causes it is best to have a well balanced diet and to eat small amounts regularly. This well balanced diet has to be maintained. During the day the levels of glucose in the body are constantly changing this has to do with the food eaten. After a meal the amount of glucose in your blood will increase, this is where insulin would be secreted in a normal person, but in a person with diabetes this would not occur and the glucose levels would remain high, due to this