This essay Condoms, STD's, & Pregnancy has a total of 813 words and 5 pages.
Condoms, STD\'s, & Pregnancy
During the 1980s, efforts increased to alert the public to the dangers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended pregnancy, yet these problems have increased. Adolescents and young adults have been especially hard hit. Pregnancy and birth rates among teenagers are at their highest levels in two decades.
Research has demonstrated that consistent condom use is an effective way to prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs and in the prevention of pregnancy.
Analyses of the Urban Institute’s National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM) show that although most sexually experienced teenage males have used condoms at least once, many do not use them consistently. Only 35 percent reported using a condom every time they had sex in the past year. But teenage males use condoms more than older men, and between 1979 and 1988 reported condom use among male teenagers doubled. These patterns indicate that teenagers are a promising target population for condom promotion efforts since they appear more ready than older men to change their behaviors.
Unfortunately, condom use among young men appears to have plateaued since 1988. Comparisons of 1988 and 1991 NSAM data show no change in rates of use.
Attitudes Related to Use
Condom use is higher among young men who worry more frequently about AIDS when the effects of other factors are held constant. Between 1988 and 1991, however, sexually experienced teenagers showed declines in the frequency with which they worried about AIDS, how serious they thought AIDS was, and the likelihood they would get AIDS. These reductions were associated with lower levels of condom use.
Male teenagers who think they will be embarrassed buying or using condoms, use them less consistently than those with higher embarrassment thresholds. If they think that the use of a condom will reduce the physical pleasure associated with intercourse, they are even less likely to use condoms. Anticipated loss of pleasure is one of the strongest correlates of reduced condom use.
Beliefs about male responsibility for contraception are also associated with condom use. Teenage males use condoms more often when they believe that men bear responsibility for initiating discussion of contraception with their female partners, refusing sexual intercourse if contraception is not used, helping to pay for the contraceptive pill, and assuming financial responsibility for any resulting children. Further work has shown that young men’s views of their contraceptive responsibility are very much related to their beliefs about masculinity.
Several surveys, including the NSAM, have found that the younger teenagers are when they initiate sex, the less likely they are to use contraception at that time. As sexually experienced male teenagers grow older, their use of condoms declines. Further analyses demonstrate that some of this decline is explained by changes in partner relationships.
Influence of Female Partners
As young men grow older, their female partners are more likely to use effective female methods of contraception, which appear to substitute for condoms. Indeed, pregnancy prevention, not STD prevention, appears to be the main reason that condoms are used when they are used. When young men who used a condom at last intercourse were asked why they did so, 83 percent said "to prevent pregnancy." Only 12 percent reported condom use to prevent disease and 2 percent to prevent both pregnancy and disease.
Further work suggests that condom use in a relationship drops off the longer a relationship lasts, the greater the frequency of intercourse, and the closer the relationship. It seems likely that over time the partners stop using condoms as the risk of STDs becomes less salient. However, there are two causes of concern. Informal assessment of a partner’s STD risk may not be very accurate. Also, teenagers change partners frequently and may not resume the habit of condom use, once having abandoned the precaution.
Another aspect of partner dynamics is the responsiveness of young men to their female partners’ wish for them to use condoms. Indeed, one of the strongest predictors of condom use is the young man’s belief that his partner would appreciate his doing so.
Implications for Prevention Efforts
New strategies are needed to reach teenagers and change their behaviors.
Based on the NSAM survey results, the researchers recommend that condom promotion efforts target teenagers before they become sexually
Topics Related to Condoms, STD's, & Pregnancy
Sexual reproduction, Health, Human sexuality, Sexual health, Midwifery, HIVAIDS, Medical technology, Condom, Female condom, Safe sex, Birth control, Sexually transmitted infection
Essays Related to Condoms, STD's, & Pregnancy
My Summer OffMy Summer Off My Summer Off Memory can be so fickle. Like some great book that is slowly loosing its pages, you begin with an entire novel full of details and descriptions and, if you’re not careful, you end up with nothing more than the cover and the brief synopsis on the back page. My novel on the subject of the end of summer school debate has lost its share of pages but the back-cover synopsis, the essence of the entire experience, is still with me. “We are about to begin our annual debating
Orwell's thoughts on TotalitarianismOrwell\'s thoughts on Totalitarianism V Orwell\'s thoughts on Totalitarianism A. From life experiences B. From a writers point of view VI Conclusion Introduction Orwell observed that every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it (George Orwell). George Orwell has been a major contributor to anticommunist literature around the World War II period. Orwell lived in Engla
An Attack On AmericaAn Attack On America Vonnegut uses satire, from innocent innuendo and wit to burlesque, sarcasm and cosmic irony to attack American society in the 1950’s and 1960’s. These forms of satire can be seen in ‘Miss Temptation’, ‘Welcome to the Monkey House’ and ‘All the Kings Men’. In ‘Miss Temptation’, Susanna’s “diabolical beauty” (75) or evil beauty mad Puritanism to fall “into such disrepair” (75). The innuendo of Vonnegut’s opening sentence attacks the so-called modern thinkers of the day and the
AIDS/HIVAIDS/HIV The HIV virus poses one of the biggest viral threats to human society today. It is contracted through bodily fluids such as blood and semen, and sometimes even saliva and tears. AIDS kills 100% of its victims and puts them through agony before they die. It has been a threat for about 15 years, and it is not going to stop now. In fact, AIDS is just getting started: It consumes more people each year. There is no known treatment for it either, only antibiotics to slow the reproduction of t
Thoeries of EvolutionThoeries of Evolution Evolution is the process by which living organisms originated on earth and have changed their forms to adapt to the changing environment. The earliest known fossil organisms are the single-celled forms resembling modern bacteria; they date from about 3.4 billion years ago. Evolution has resulted in successive radiations of new types of organisms, many of which have become extinct, but some of which have developed into the present fauna and flora of the world (Wilson 17). Ev
Investigation of Reproduction and Development in AInvestigation of Reproduction and Development in Animals Due Date: 12/9/96 Cycles, Conception and Contraception Fertility is the condition of being fertile. The aim of contraception is to inhibit fertility in individuals, hence, slowing population growth. The system by which all female contraception must operate: the menstrual cycle. What is the menstrual cycle? and what hormones are involved in controlling it? After puberty, the female produces an egg each month. Other changes take place on a c
Life of Octopus DofleiniLife of Octopus Dofleini Introduction This is a research report on octopuses in general, however will focus in on a particular species of octopus, the North Pacific Giant or octopus dofleini , which is a bottom dwelling octopus that lives on coasts of the pacific ocean, from California to north Japan. This report will cover the habitat, and lifestyle of this amazing mollusk, that is so often misunderstood. The octopus is a very intelligent, and resourceful invertebrate whose natural abilities sh
MalariaMalaria Malaria parasites have been with us since the beginning of time, and fossils of mosquitoes up to thirty million years old show that malaria’s vector has existed for just as long. The parasites causing malaria are highly specific, with man as the only host and mosquitoes as the only vector. Every year, 300,000,000 people are affected by malaria, and while less than one percent of these people die, there are still an estimated 1,500,000 deaths per year. While Malaria was one of the first i
Marijuana: Opponent's Factual BriefMarijuana: Opponent\'s Factual Brief OPPONENT\'S BRIEF Factual Proposition: Consuming marijuana is detrimental to one\'s health. Definition of key terms: 1. Consumption= Smoking or eating marijuana. 2. Marijuana= Psychoactive mind altering substance, also known as cannabis. 3. Detrimental= Serious harm. Primary Inference: Smoking or eating marijuana is likely to create serious health problems for most individual users or society. Overview: Since the 1920\'s supporters of marijuana prohibition ha
Predator - Prey RelationshipsPredator - Prey Relationships The relationship between predators and their prey is an intricate and complicated relationship; covering a great area of scientific knowledge. This paper will examine the different relationships between predator and prey; focusing on the symbiotic relations between organisms, the wide range of defense mechanisms that are utilized by various examples of prey, and the influence between predators and prey concerning evolution and population structure. Symbiosis is the
The DogThe Dog Domestic dog, carnivorous mammal, generally considered the first domesticated animal. The domesticated dog has coexisted with human beings as a working partner and household pet in all eras and cultures since the days of the cave dwellers. It is generally believed that the direct ancestor of the domestic dog is the wolf, originally found throughout Europe, Asia, and North America. Remains of a dog, estimated to be 10,500 years old, have been found in Idaho. TAXONOMY Kingdom: Animalia Phy
Introduction To EvolutionIntroduction To Evolution What is Evolution? Evolution is the process by which all living things have developed from primitive organisms through changes occurring over billions of years, a process that includes all animals and plants. Exactly how evolution occurs is still a matter of debate, but there are many different theories and that it occurs is a scientific fact. Biologists agree that all living things come through a long history of changes shaped by physical and chemical processes that ar
An End To Genetic DiseasesAn End To Genetic Diseases The United States has a very diverse heritage. There is no American race. Americans are the blending of many cultures throughout many generations. With this blending of cultures comes a blending of genes. In the past, genes have not been well understood. They were not understood until Mendel did experiments on plants to find out why different plants of the same species had different characteristics. His goal was to find the key to unlock the mystery of inheritance (Cop
Birth ControlBirth Control The practice of birth control prevents conception, thus limiting reproduction. The term birth control, coined by Margaret SANGER in 1914, usually refers specifically to methods of contraception, including STERILIZATION. The terms family planning and planned parenthood have a broader application. METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL Attempts to control fertility have been going on for thousands of years. References to preventing conception are found in the writings of priests, philosophers, and
Human CloningHuman Cloning Imagine it is the year 2008. As you pick up your daily issue of the New York Times, you begin to read some of the interesting articles on the front page. The top story of the paper reads, Germany Wins All Gold Medals at the Olympic Games: Is Cloning in Competitive Events Fair? Other interesting articles reported on the front page include: Rock Star Stacy Levesque and Lover’s Nuclear Transplanted Child is Born and Former President George Bush’s Cloned Heart Transplant A Success. The
MArijuanaMArijuana Beatriz Lama Pérez Marjory Hutchinson ENG – 190 9 December 1999 Legalization of Marijuana For many years the use of marijuana for medical purposes has been an issue of controversial discussion. Many claim that marijuana is a drug that has proven itself to be of no medical value in the treatment of terminal illnesses. Those who feel this way, usually ignore the long history of marijuana’s medical uses; a history that goes back thousands of years ago. The drug has aided many people with
ReproductionReproduction For some time she had watched his movements, appearing coyly in his haunts. And now, had it paid off? Doubtless, he was in love. His muscles were taut; he swooped through the air more like an eagle than a Greylag gander. The only problem was, it was not for her that he then landed in a flurry of quacks and wingbeats, or for her that he dashed off surprise attacks on his fellows. It was, rather, for another - for her preening rival across the Bavarian lake. Poor goose. Will she mate
Theory Of Evolution By Natural And Sexual SelectioTheory Of Evolution By Natural And Sexual Selection Introduction It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwin’s time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution could not come up with a satisfactory mechanism that woul
1984 Review1984 Review 1984 is a story about dictators who are in complete control of a large part of the world after the Allies lost in World War II. The government in this novel gives no freedoms to its citizens. They live in fear because they are afraid of having bad thoughts about the government of Oceania, a crime punishable by death. Winston the main character, is an ordinary man of 39 who is disgusted with the world he lives in. He works in the Ministry of Truth, a place where history and the truth
A Review Of Psychology ArticlesA Review Of Psychology Articles In this paper I will review four articles, one movie, and one experiment conducted in class. The issue\'s all this information covers is sex differences and the degree to which they exists in men and women and why they are present. There will be varying points of view for all these issues with each article having its own studies or theory \'s to support its beliefs. The method for presenting this information will first be summaries of the media gathered then a gen
Clockwork Orange And The Age Of Mechanical ReproduClockwork Orange And The Age Of Mechanical Reproduction Clockwork Orange and the Age of Mechanical Reproduction For Walter Benjamin, the defining characteristic of modernity was mass assembly and production of commodities, concomitant with this transformation of production is the destruction of tradition and the mode of experience which depends upon that tradition. While the destruction of tradition means the destruction of authenticity, of the originally, in that it also collapses the distance
The Population ProblemThe Population Problem Two hundred years ago, Thomas Malthus, in An Essay on the Principle of Population, reached the conclusion that the number of people in the world will increase exponentially, while the ability to feed these people will only increase arithmetically (21). Current evidence shows that this theory may not be far from the truth. For example, between 1950 and 1984, the total amount of grain produced more than doubled, much more than the increase in population in those 34 years. Mo
Creative Writing: My Summer OffCreative Writing: My Summer Off Memory can be so fickle. Like some great book that is slowly loosing its pages, you begin with an entire novel full of details and descriptions and, if you\'re not careful, you end up with nothing more than the cover and the brief synopsis on the back page. My novel on the subject of the end of summer school debate has lost its share of pages but the back-cover synopsis, the essence of the entire experience, is still with me. “We are about to begin our annual deba
Bram Stoker's Dracula: Anti-ChristianBram Stoker\'s Dracula: Anti-Christian 1.) There are many ways that Bram Stoker\'s Dracula can be considered Anti- Christian by showing of Anti-Christian values and perversions of the Christian religion. In chapter one as Jonathan Harker is traveling to Castle Dracula he is met by several people. When he meets these people and tells them where he is going they cross themselves along with doing several other superstiscious actions. One of the women he meets gives him a crucifix to protect him on
Freud's Oz: Freudian Views in The Wizard of OzFreud\'s Oz: Freudian Views in The Wizard of Oz The film The Wizard of Oz is definitely about the concept of returning home. This is made clear throughout the film. Dorothy\'s entire time in Oz is spent trying to get back home to Kansas. Then when she gets back home she tells Aunt Em that all I kept saying to everybody was ‘I want to go home.\' This fits perfectly with the time, 1939, that The Wizard of Oz was produced. One reason was that due to the depression, many people were forced away fr
DraculaDracula 1.) There are many ways that Bram Stoker’s Dracula can be considered Anti-Christian by showing of Anti-Christian values and perversions of the Christian religion. In chapter one as Jonathan Harker is traveling to Castle Dracula he is met by several people. When he meets these people and tells them where he is going they cross themselves along with doing several other superstiscious actions. One of the women he meets gives him a crucifix to protect him on his journey. This crucifix protec
Freud's OzFreud\'s Oz Freud’s Oz The film The Wizard of Oz is definitely about the concept of returning home. This is made clear throughout the film. Dorothy’s entire time in Oz is spent trying to get back home to Kansas. Then when she gets back home she tells Aunt Em that all I kept saying to everybody was ‘I want to go home.’ This fits perfectly with the time, 1939, that The Wizard of Oz was produced. One reason was that due to the depression, many people were forced away from their homes and into cit
The Entrapment of an Irresponsible FatherThe Entrapment of an Irresponsible Father ENC 1102 2:00 PM class I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings is an autobiography of Maya Angelou’s childhood. It is the story of one girl’s fight for survival in a cruel world. Her growing process was made more difficult because she is a near orphan, shuttled between people and places. All her life she searches for love and belonging. This love and sense of belonging mainly comes from a child’s parents while he or she is young and developing into adults. There
Human cloningHuman cloning English 0373.08 June 24, 2004 Essay #5 Many people have already heard about the first cloned sheep. It was a breakthrough to the whole world. Many scientists saw the benefits lying ahead for humankind. With this discovery, the possibility of human cloning was speculated. Many governments were eager to ban human cloning. To ban the research “will just push it underground and into unscrupulous hands” Human cloning and its technology are necessary and should be continued because the c
Women RightsWomen Rights Since the first American colonies existed, women have been characterized for having less civil rights with less career opportunities than men. For many years women have been fighting to enjoy their own rights. Women have raised their voices to demand their full civil and political rights. Women have had to overcome many economic, political, and even social obstacles created by men just to be treated in an equal way in the American society. Generally, the womeni lives have been chara
MetallicaMetallica 1980 A young Lars Ulrich was addicted to the NWOBHM (New Wave Of British Heavy Metal), and he tried to put his own band together. At this point, his attempt failed, but he placed an ad in a magazine called Recycler, to which one James Hetfield answered. James and Lars met up to jam, but nothing became of this first meeting. Summer 81 Lars went to the UK to follow Diamond Head around for 3 months on tour. On his return he secured a deal to record a track for the Metal Blade compilation
Gender Trouble: Feminism and The Subversion of IdeGender Trouble: Feminism and The Subversion of Identity A Review/Commentary of GenderTrouble: Feminism and The Subversion of Identity, By Judith Butler Gender, Homosexuality and Ethics Feb. 9/00 Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Judith Butler exhibits the new wave of Anglo-American academic feminism, a feminism that goes beyond the delusional categories of male and female, and wishes to confuse or “trouble” these categories all to
The Metaethics of The Metaethics of Ayn Rand and Objectivism Foundations of Ethics January 2001 Table of Contents o Introduction ……………………………………………….. p. 3-5 Early Ayn Rand …………………………………… p. 5-6 Literary Period ………………………….…………. p. 7-8 Philosophical Period ……………………………… p. 8-9 o Metaethics ………………………………………………… p.9-10 Existence as Primary …………..……....………… p. 10-11 Animate vs. Inanimate Objects ………………….. p. 11-13 Life and Value ………………….…………………. p. 13-14 Fact and Value: The Randian Synthesis ………... p. 15-17 The Rationa
MitosisMitosis Cells can divide, and in unicellular organisms, this makes more organisms. In multicellular organisms, cell division is used for growth, development, and repair of the organism. Cell division is controlled by DNA, but exact copies of the DNA must be given to the daughter cells (note use of “mother” and “daughter”). Bacteria reproduce by a simple process called binary fission. They have one chromosome which is attached to the cell membrane. This chromosome replicates, then the two copies
Feminist RevolutionFeminist Revolution In the latter half of this century while the New Right has managed to remain unified, organized and focused the Left’s major weakness has been that it has been anything but; in fact it is difficult to ascertain whether the Left hold any shared tenets. There seems to be the vague understanding that left-wing politics are associated with being pro-woman, pro-labor and anti-racist; however even these extremely general sentiments are often confused and mistakenly conflicted.1 Fem
Globalization & Human Development Globalization Human Development Kazakhstan and Pakistan Abstract Globalization provides opportunities for developing countries to progress economically and increase human development. This paper defines the difference between economic development and human development and shows that Pakistan is at the low end of human development, while Kazakhstan is at and average level, considered a middle income country. Human development goes beyond measures of GDP, literacy rates, and life expectancy. Fact
Jack KerouacJack Kerouac In Jack Kerouac\'s novels and poetry he is always searching for something to believe in, be it himself, God, or something else. Surprisingly, he manages to also simultaneously be constantly running away. Fear of responsibility and conformity is present in the majority of his works; this is the reason for his elusiveness, and the constant desire and search for a path far removed from the traditional ho-hum home-life leads him to Buddhism, which was then a novel concept in America. Ke
Plato's Philosophy of SexPlato\'s Philosophy of Sex Plato was the first feminist. Only, he was concerned not with women\'s rights, as modern feminists are, but with their usefulness. Like a modern planner, he felt it was a waste of woman-power to seclude women in their homes, when they could be performing useful tasks in the factory or the office. Women should be used, just as men were, for the benefit of the community. There were no fundamental differences between the sexes which unfitted women from useful toil. Admitt
MotivationMotivation Lesson 3 Short Answer 1. Define motivation. Provide your own examples of a motive and a drive. Motivation is the process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses. For example, a gold medal in a sport event acts as a motive; since it is an honor to win the gold medal, the gold medal acts as a motive so that the participators try thei
Parasite RexParasite Rex Summary: Parasite Rex was a complex book describing the life of a parasite. In today’s society, parasites are seen as useless creatures that live their lives at the expense of another’s, but Carl Zimmer portrays them in a much different light. He brilliantly displays that parasites have received a poor reputation but are in fact a major contributor to life on earth today. The beginning of the book describes how early scientists discovered parasites. Leeuwenhoek, Steenstrup and Koch,
Embryo ResearchEmbryo Research What do you think of when you hear the word embryo? You might say, something to do with sexualreproduction. Well, the definition of an embryo is, ‘An organism in the early stages of development from a fertilized egg’. Some people will argue that it is not yet a life; some may say it is, but no matter what they argue, everyone knows that it has the potential to become a human life. Should that not be enough to ban medical research on human embryos’? Apparently not. In this ess
PlantsPlants The four kinds of plants Plants are the link of the evolutionary chain that helped start life as we know it. Some 700 million years ago we had their first ancestors, algae, developed in the seas, 265 million years after that the first simple stalked plants we found outside the seas now but along their coasts and along streams (Starr, C. Taggart, R. pp.153). Through out the years plants have evolved to the ones we know today and can differentiate them by the following categories: Nonvascul
ISLAM AND WOMEN’S SEXUALITY:ISLAM AND WOMEN’S SEXUALITY: A RESEARCH REPORT FROM TURKEY The control over women’s sexuality through restriction, coercion, violence or more complicated forms of political and social manipulation remains the most powerful tool of patriarchy in the majority of societies. Religion is often misused, both as an instrument of this control mechanism and as a cultural system, to legitimize the violation of women’s human rights. However, concentrating on the role of religion in constructing women’s sex
AbortionAbortion Jasmine, A 14 year old girl, is pregnant she has 3 more years left of high school and needs to establish a place in the real world. She doesn’t even know the father and she’s addicted to marijuana. She has two options, she could have an abortion, or she could have the baby and risk the life of herself and her baby. In cases like these there aren’t very many choices especially for young teenagers. If abortion was illegal then the girl would have to have the baby with no others choices, w
Homosexuality and Misogyny in Greek LifeHomosexuality and Misogyny in Greek Life Feminine equality and the need of a male female relationship, these two ideas are what many people believe in today’s society to have always been around since the beginning of time. But these people are wrong because both misogyny and homosexuality have been around for thousands of years and in this paper I intend to converse about homosexuality and misogyny in the time of Greek antiquity compared to how Aristophanes portrays it in Lysistrata. In this ess
Predator/Prey RelationshipsPredator/Prey Relationships The relationship between predators and their prey is an intricate and complicated relationship; covering a great area of scientific knowledge. This paper will examine the different relationships between predator and prey; focusing on the symbiotic relations between organisms, the wide range of defense mechanisms that are utilized by various examples of prey, and the influence between predators and prey concerning evolution and population structure. Symbiosis is the in
Information And The Freedom To View ItInformation And The Freedom To View It The freedom of speech that was possible on the Internet could now be subjected to governmental approvals. For example, China is attempting to restrict political expression, in the name of security and social stability. It requires users of the Internet and electronic mail (e-mail) to register, so that it may monitor their activities.(9) In the United Kingdom, state secrets and personal attacks are off limits on the Internet. Laws are strict and the governme
What is so essential about sex? One usually speaksSex What is so essential about sex? One usually speaks of sex for reproduction, when actually sex and reproduction are the precise opposites of each other. Reproduction is the process by which one cell turns into two, sex is the process by which two cells turn into one. You may be thinking at this instant, which is better overall? Well, in terms of evolution, sex has had more of an advantage. Here\'s why: If two favorable mutations occur in different members of the population and they have sex,
Censorship and the InternetCensorship and the Internet by Josh Klein For centuries governments have tried to regulate materials deemed inappropriate or offensive. The history of western censorship was said to have begun when Socrates was accused firstly, of denying the gods recognized by the State and introducing new divinities, and secondly of corrupting the young.(fileroom.aaup.uic.edu) He was sentenced to death for these crimes. Many modern governments are attempting to control access to the Internet. They are passin
CloningCloning The cloning of humans may soon be a reality. The recent announcement of a sheep and calf cloned using this technique has sparked much controversy in the modern world. The ethical, legal, and moral aspects of cloning must be addressed by governments quickly and its implications must be taken into careful consideration for the future of mankind in general. On February 23, 1997, Ian Wilmut, a Scottish scientist, and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute announced the successful cloning of