This essay Common Anions and Cations Lab has a total of 560 words and 4 pages.
Common Anions and Cations Lab
The purpose of this lab was to identify common anions and cations in solutions using simple chemical tests, and to use the results discovered in these tests to identify ions in an unknown solution.
First we tested for anions, skipping the boiling bath described by step one; we tested for the chloride ion. To do so we added 2 mL of sodium chloride to a clean prepared test tube. To a second clean test tube we added 2 mL of the unknown substance-A102. One mL equaled about 20 drops per test tube. We then proceeded by adding 2mL of 6M nitric acid to each test tube, and flicked gently to mix them up. Both test tubes came up with a white, chunky, chalky mixture. We decided prematurely that the chloride ion was present in solution A102.
Our next test for was sulfate ions. We prepared a test tube, which had been cleaned, with 2 mL of sodium sulfate solution, and another tube with 2mL of unknown. 2mL of 6M hydrochloric acid was added to each. The sodium sulfate solution became white, and thinned. However, the unknown had very little affected-if any-and was clear.
Our next test was for bicarbonate ions. We added 2mL of sodium bicarbonate and the unknown solution to two separate test tubes. We watched very carefully, as directed, as we added the 6M hydrochloric acid. The sodium bicarbonate solution stayed clear, but became very bubbly. The unknown-A102-stayed unaffected in this test.
We then tested for phosphate ions. Once again we added 2mL of sodium phosphate and the unknown to two separate test tubes. We proceeded to add 1 mL (10 drops) of 6M nitric acid and 10 drops of ammonium molybdate to each test tube. They were placed in the boiling bath we had now prepared (day 2). The test may have been obscured, but no results came from either test.
In our next set of steps, starting at 7, we were now testing for cations. Our first test was for iron (III) ions, and to do so we added 2mL of sulfate solution, and 2mL of the unknown to two tubes. We also added 5 drops of both sulfuric acid and potassium thiocyanate to each tube. We then flame tested both tubes, and this resulted in our unknown remaining unchanged and the Iron (III) turning red.
Then we tested for potassium ions. 2mL of both the potassium chloride in one tube, and the unknown in another, were added. 3 drops of 6M hydrochloric acid were added. These solutions were flame tested with a clean wire-resulting in a purple color for the potassium chloride, and nothing for the unknown.
We finally tested for ammonium ions using some litmus paper. We added 2mL of ammonium nitrate solution to one test tube, and the unknown to another. 3 drops of 6M of sodium hydroxide were added to both tubes. Each tube was warmed separately, and the litmus paper was held closely at the top. The ammonium nitrate solution turned the litmus paper blue. The unknown had no affect.
The result from our experiments showed that the anion present in solution A-102 was in fact chloride. We, however, didn’t find our cation due to some faulty labs results incurred by more than one lab group.
How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out.How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out. By Faisal Premji Science 10 Assignment -- Part B In a human being, nutrients are necessary for survival. But how are these nutrients obtained? This report will go into depth on how the food we eat gets into our cells, and how the waste products that we produce get out of the body. Also, the unicellular organism Paramecium will be compared with a human being, in terms of all of the above factors. Dietary Nutrients The chief nutrients in a diet are classified
What Are The Major Components of Biological MembraWhat Are The Major Components of Biological Membranes And How Do They Contribute To Membrane Function?. Summary. The role of the biological membrane has proved to be vital in countless mechanisms necessary to a cells survival. The phospholipid bilayer performs the simpler functions such as compartmentation, protection and osmoregulation. The proteins perform a wider range of functions such as extracellular interactions and metabolic processes. The carbohydrates are found in conjunction with both
Acetylation of FerroceneAcetylation of Ferrocene 17. October 1996 Experiment #7 Introduction In this lab we will be utilizing the Friedel Crafts process of acetylation of ferrocene. Ferrocene is an atom of iron bounded by two aromatic rings. We will use some reagents that will cause the ferrocene to add either one acetyl group to an aromatic ring or add two acetyl groups to each of the aromatic rings. In order to determine how well this process had worked we employed: IR spectra analysis, column chromatography, and a l
Acid Base ExtractionAcid Base Extraction The purpose of this laboratory assignment was two-fold, first, we were to demonstrate the extraction of acids and bases, finally, determining what unknowns were present. Second, we were to extract caffeine from tea. These two assignment will be documented in two separate entities. Introduction: Acid/base extraction involves carrying out simple acid/base reactions in order to separate strong organic acids, weak organic acids neutral organic compounds and basic organic substan
Intermolecular Bonding EssayIntermolecular Bonding Essay Write an essay on intermolecular bonding. Explain how each type of bond arises and the evidence for the existence of each. Comment on their strengths in relation to the types of atoms involved; the covalent bond and relative to each other. Use the concepts of different types and strengths of intermolecular bonds to explain the following: There exists four types of intermolecular bonding, they include ionic, covalent, Van der waals and hydrogen bonding. In order to de
OxygenOxygen Oxygen, symbol O, colorless, odorless, tasteless, slightly magnetic gaseous element. On earth, oxygen is more abundant than any other element. Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by the British chemist Joseph Priestley and, independently, by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele; it was shown to be an elemental gas by the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier in his classic experiments on combustion. Large amounts of oxygen are used in high-temperature welding torches, in which a mixture
OxygenOxygen Oxygen and its compounds play a key role in many of the important processes of life and industry. Oxygen in the biosphere is essential in the processes of respiration and metabolism, the means by which animals derive the energy needed to sustain life. Furthermore, oxygen is the most abundant element at the surface of the Earth. In combined form it is found in ores, earths, rocks, and gemstones, as well as in all living organisms. Oxygen is a gaseous chemical element in Group VA of the per
PhosphatesPhosphates Phosphates may be created by substituting some or all of the hydrogen of a phosphoric acid by metals. Depending on the number of hydrogen atoms that are replaced, the resulting compound is described as a primary, secondary or tertiary phosphate. Primary and secondary phosphates contain hydrogen and are acid salts. Secondary and tertiary phosphates, with the exception of those of sodium, potassium and ammonium are insoluble in water. Tertiary sodium phosphate is valuable as a detergent
Phosphates in Water PollutionPhosphates in Water Pollution Phosphates may be created by substituting some or all of the hydrogen of a phosphoric acid by metals. Depending on the number of hydrogen atoms that are replaced, the resulting compound is described as a primary, secondary or tertiary phosphate. Primary and secondary phosphates contain hydrogen and are acid salts. Secondary and tertiary phosphates, with the exception of those of sodium, potassium and ammonium are insoluble in water. Tertiary sodium phosphate is valu
The Comparative Abundance of The ElementsThe Comparative Abundance of The Elements By Derrick Deacon - There are 92 naturally occurring elements, only 17 of them make up 99.5% of the earth\'s crust (including oceans and atmosphere). - In living things (plants, animals, people) the six most abundant elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. - The universe is dominated by the elements hydrogen (83%) and helium (16%) 1. The Crust The outside of the earth is a thin crust which is approximately 20 to 40km thick
The Element: ChlorineThe Element: Chlorine General Information We researched the chemical element known as chlorine. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17 and an atomic weight of 35.453. It has a valence number of 3. The element has 3 energy levels. Chlorine exists as a greenish-yellow gas at normal temperatures and pressures. Chlorine is second in reactivity only to fluorine among the halogen elements. Chlorine is a nonmetal. It is estimated that 0.045% of the earth’s crust and 1.9% of sea water are chlorine. Chlorin
The History of CarbonThe History of Carbon I. Introduction A. The History of Carbon II. Occurrences in Nature A. Diamond B. Graphite C. Coal and Charcoal D. Amorphous Carbon III. Carbon Compounds A. Inorganic B. Organic IV. The Carbon Cycle IV. Conclusion Carbon, an element discovered before history itself, is one of the most abundant elements in the universe. It can be found in the sun, the stars, comets, and the atmospheres of most planets. There are close to ten million known carbon compounds, many thousands of w
Air PollutionAir Pollution Problem The first thing people see, in the morning, when they walk outside is the sky or the colored sun. Is this world giving us the privilege of seeing the natural colors of the sun through all the layers of pollution within the air (Dinanike 31)? Not only are beautiful sights such as this hidden behind the pollution this world causes everyday, but an increase in diseases, infections and death occurs. What causes pollution? What can we do to prevent it,and get rid of it? Is it fa
Earth Science RocksEarth Science Rocks The 8 most common elements in the earth\'s crust are Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium. They compose 98.5% of the total crust. A mineral occurs naturally, is a soli, inorganic, has chemical composition and a crystalline structure. Native minerals are single elements. Compounds are 2 or more. There are more compound than native. You can identify minerals by color, streak, luster, hardness, cleavage, and fracture. Minerals form by magma erup
LithiumLithium In 1817, an aging Swedish chemist was pouring over his work on a late afternoon in Stockholm, Sweden. He was analyzing a strange ore named Petalite that had been procured from an island off the coast of Sweden called Utö. The ore Petalite (which is now recognized to be LiAl(Si2O5)2) had been discovered by a Brazilian scientist, José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva towards the end of the 18th century on a visit to Sweden. This Swedish scientist, Johann August Arfvedson, detected traces of an
Neutralizing Acids and BasesNeutralizing Acids and Bases The sought to determine the effects of mixing various levels of acids and bases to see which combination would have the most explosive reaction, and measure the resulting pH levels. I did this by testing an assortment of different pH levels of acids and bases, mixing them together and measuring the results. Most of the experiments resulted in a pH neutral solution, except for the Sulfuric Acid and the Sodium Hydroxide. By far, the Sulfuric Acid was the most explosive
Phosphates In Water PollutionPhosphates In Water Pollution Phosphates may be created by substituting some or all of the hydrogen of a phosphoric acid by metals. Depending on the number of hydrogen atoms that are replaced, the resulting compound is described as a primary, secondary or tertiary phosphate. Primary and secondary phosphates contain hydrogen and are acid salts. Secondary and tertiary phosphates, with the exception of those of sodium, potassium and ammonium are insoluble in water. Tertiary sodium phosphate is valu
SodiumSodium Life could not exist without compounds of sodium. These compounds hold water in body tissues, and a severe deficiency of sodium can cause death. Blood contains sodiumcompounds in solution. Sodiumcompounds are used in industry in the manufacture of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, in metallurgy, in sodium vapor lamps, and in the production of hundreds of every day products. One of the most common sodiumcompounds is table salt, or sodium chloride. In its pure form sodium is a silver-white,
AIR POLUTIONAIR POLUTION Problem The first thing people see, in the morning, when they walk outside is the sky or the colored sun. Is this world giving us the privilege of seeing the natural colors of the sun through all the layers of pollution within the air (Dinanike 31)? Not only are beautiful sights such as this hidden behind the pollution this world causes everyday, but an increase in diseases, infections and death occurs. What causes pollution? What can we do to prevent it, and get rid of it? Is it fa
Hydrogen: The Fuel of The FutureHydrogen: The Fuel of The Future By: Json Why are we as Americans so afraid to change? even if it is a change for the better? the world has been using oil coal and other petroleum products to power just about everything that moves for the last 150 years. yet most cars in the united states only get 10-20 miles a gallon and even the good ones can get only a petty 20-50 miles a gallon. so why do we put up with the inefficiency when there are far better alternatives out there? Such as hydrogen, wh
Documentation of Competency Documentation of Competency Objective: I Atom - the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element Example: the formation of a sodium chloride crystal Molecule - The smallest part of any substance which has the qualities of that substance, and which can exist alone in a free state. Example: a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Organelle - A cell structure that carries out a specialized function in the life of a cell. Example: t
Acid RainAcid Rain INTRODUCTION: John F. Kennedy once said, “The supreme reality of our time is the vulnerability of our planet.” This vulnerability has never been so obvious as it is when we consider the devastating effect of acid rain. Acid rain destroys entire ecosystems and jeopardizes our health. The destructive power of this silent killer is evident to everyone who visits the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. The issue of acid rain is not just a local problem; the effect of acid rain on the e
Acid RainAcid Rain Scientists from around the globe have come to the conclusion that acid rain has to be regarded as a serious direct threat to our environment. This conclusion has been arrived upon from the study of concrete scientific evidence by way of the study of acid rain and its effects on the environment. Acid rain hurts both lakes and other bodies of water as well as vegetation. Many bodies of water are extremely sensitive to acid rain because they do not have the ability to neutralize it. Such
Organic ChemistryOrganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry branch of chemistry in which carbon compounds and their reactions are studied. A wide variety of classes of substances—such as drugs, vitamins, plastics, natural and synthetic fibers, as well as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats—consist of organic molecules. Organic chemists determine the structures of organic molecules, study their various reactions, and develop procedures for the synthesis of organic compounds. Organic chemistry has had a profound effect on
The Solar SystemThe Solar System Dealing with planets, galaxies, comets, meteors, and stars, astronomy is the science which studies the astral bodies. Astronomy also provides the basis for other physics-related sciences such as astrophysics and cosmology. The main staples of astronomy include: the solar system, nearby stars, asteroids, galaxies, and comets. The Solar System Newton\'s law of gravitation concluded that a force was present between the sun and each of the planets, which caused a strong attraction.
ChromiumChromium Atomic number 24. They call it Chromium. Chromium was discovered in 1797 by Louis Vauquelin of France. Since its discovery, chromium has been used in the chemical, leather tanning, and pigment industries. Chromium is stable under normal conditions, insoluble in water, resistant to chemical corrosion, and, unlike many materials, may be safely and easily handled without special precautions. The metal is usually produced by reducing the oxide with aluminum. The primary ore is chromite, whi
OUR FOOD SYSTEMOUR FOOD SYSTEM Group1 1 After a long hard day of work you sit down in your comfortable recliner and open up your favorite snack. But when you reach into grab a piece, you pull out a dead bug. Suddenly many thoughts come into your mind, you wonder how did the bug get there and was it dead or alive. Is it harmful or carry a disease. You ask yourself did the bug come from the United States or another country and where was your snack made? As all these questions come into your head, you wonder who
EtherEther Kunal Patel U.S. History I Mrs. Farrington The discovery of ether was the greatest American discovery because it helped many to overcome the pain of surgery and helped to form the Theory of Relativity. Without ether, surgery could be one of the most feared things in the world for it would be extremely painful without any type of anesthetic and we may have not known as much as we do about physics today. The substance ether itself was originally discovered somewhere in the 4th century B.C. b
SteroidsSteroids Steroids are a very large class of compounds which occur in all animals. The steroids used by athletes are mostly androgenic steroids: steroids which act like testosterone. The steroids used to treat inflammatory disorders (e.g. prednisolone, cortisone,beclomethasone, budesonide, dexamethasone and dozens of others) are cortico steroids and do not have anabolic effects. Testosterone in the male is produced mainly in the testis, a small amount being produced in the adrenal. It is synthesi
The Nature of ScienceThe Nature of Science 1) THE NATURE OF SCIENCE- Pitjendara tribe of Australia finds answers about nature in stones called Ayer’s Rock; it contains 2 pictures of 2 snakes; Liru and Kunia; also contains sand-lizard man digging for water. The goal of science is to understand the world around us. Scientific Method-1) Observing & state problem 2) Forming hyp. 3) Test hyp. 4) Record & analyze data 5) Form conclusion 6) Replicate work. Control exp. allow researchers to isolate & test the effects of a s
NutritionNutrition Nutrition is the science that deals with food and how the body uses it. All living things need food to live. The food supplies energy, which people need to perform certain actions. Food also provides substances that the body needs to build and repair its tissues and to regulate its organs and organ systems. Food provides certain chemical substances needed in order for a person to maintain good health. These chemical substances are called nutrients. Nutrients can perform three important
The Synthesis and Characterization of FerroceneThe Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrocene Since ferrocene is credited with the rapid acceleration of modern organotransition metal chemistry (1,2) and the cyclopentadienyl group is extensively used as a stabilizing ligand, it is only fitting that the synthesis of ferrocene be incorporated into an advanced undergraduate inorganic laboratory. In our four credit course, the students work in pairs and have the opportunity to select six experiments from a total of nine. Three of these experimen
PhotographyPhotography Photography is a technique of producing permanent images on sensitized surfaces by means of the photochemical action of light or other forms of radiant energy. In today\'s society, photography plays important roles as an information medium, as a tool in science and technology, and as an art form, and it is also a popular hobby. It is essential at every level of business and industry, being used in advertising, documentation, photojournalism, and many other ways. Scientific research,
ChemistryChemistry Chemistry is the study of matter, it’s composition, and the changes it undergoes. In the formula: [ NaHCO3 + HCl > NaCl + HOH + CO2 ], all the components are made up of matter as are all substances that exist. There are many types of matter. There are elements and compounds. There are 109 discovered elements; yet there may be more. An element is a pure substance, which is in its smallest possible form yet retaining the properties. A compound is a material made up of two or more element
The Alkaline Earth MetalsThe Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2A Introduction: This lab was divided into four parts: Part 1 was about testing for hydrogen gas. Part 2 involved finding the pH levels of certain elements. Part 3 was about testing for solubility. Part 4 was simply taking in the observations and making them make sense. Procedure: Part 1: 1) Pour about 2.5 mL of distilled water into a clean, dry test tube and stand the tube in the test tube rack. Add a calcium turning to the water in the tube. To collect gas being
RUBIDIUMRUBIDIUM The 37th Element Rubidium is located between potassium and cesium in the first Group on the Periodic Table. It’s atomic number is 37and its atomic mass is 85.4678. In French and German it is rubidium, in Italian and Spanish it is rubidio. History and General Facts Rubidium was discovered spectroscopically in1861 by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in Germany. They experimented with spectral lines of light, now called spectroscopy. They noticed that, when heated or burned, different el
NucleotidesNucleotides The foundation of life as we know it is composed of nucleic acids. Researchers believe that these fundamental building blocks were first formed three billion years ago when the first forms of elementary life began to appear on earth. Nucleic acids have at least two functions. The first of these functions is to serve as a means of passing on hereditary characteristics, and the second is to instruct the cells in the production of specific proteins. Nucleic acids by nature are rather co
CHLORINECHLORINE CHLORINE. The chemical element chlorine is a poisonous, corrosive, greenish-yellow gas that has a sharp, suffocating odor and is 2 1/2 times heavier than air. Volcanic gases sometimes contain a small amount of chlorine gas. Other than that, chlorine is always found combined with other elements. Chlorine is obtained commercially from salt water by electrolysis--that is, by running an electric current through the solution. . Chlorine is changed to its liquid form by compressing the gas, a
NutritionNutrition Nutrition is the science that deals with food and how the body uses it. Food supplies energy, which people need to perform certain actions. Food also provides substances the body needs to build and repair its tissues and to regulate its organs and organ systems. Food provides certain chemical substances needed for a person to maintain good health. These substances are called nutrients. Nutrients perform three important functions. They provide for building, repairing, or maintaining bod
Solar System NotesSolar System Notes ---- Closest to the sun ---- Smallest of the inner planets ---- Temperatures reach up to 1,380 F ---- Has low gravity, therefore there is no atmosphere ---- Orbits the sun once every 88 days ---- Surface is devoid of basalt - a hard, dense type of volcanic rock that has a glassy appearance ---- High density which implies that there is a large iron or nickel-ore core ---- Fun/Interesting Fact* Mercury\'s perihelion (the time at which the planet is the closest distance from the
WATER OF HYDRATIONWATER OF HYDRATION Objective: To determine experimentally the water of hydration for the hydrate Borax. Theory: In this experiment, we examined and found the water of hydration of the hydrate borax. Borax is derived from the element Boron, which is a metalloid chemical element with properties between those of carbon and aluminum(95CI). Boron is relatively rare, constituting only 3 PPM of the Earth’s crust(95CI). It is most commonly found in the borate minerals borax, and kernite(95CI). Borax is
The Plant CellThe Plant Cell Cell Wall Size: Around 1µ Basic Function: * Hold the shape of the cell. * Strengthen the cell. Covering the cell membrane of the plant cell, there is the cell wall. The cell wall is composed of two layers of rigid, hard cellulose embedded in compounds like pectin and lignin. Pores in the cell wall allow molecules to pass through. The cell wall has two parts. The primary cell wall is formed during the growth of the cell. After the cell has stopped growing, a secondary cell wall for