Church and State

Jacob Naylor
Period 4
Research paper
4 March 1996

The theory of evolution is at odds with the views of many religions, and
many people want to allow a religious view of creationism to be taught in the
public school system. The foundation of evolution is based upon the belief that
the origin of all ordered complex systems, including living creatures, can be
explained by natural laws without the initiation or intervention of God. A
person who believes in the biblical model of creation is viewed by some non-
believers as a naive, narrow-minded religious fanatic who is not willing to look
at the observable evidence with an open mind. Because the evolutionary idea of
origins has been so widely accepted by the scientific community, many people
have reasoned that the creation model should be completely rejected without
fairly examining its claims. Even many Christians who have deep trust and faith
in the Bible have never really understood the claims of the creation account
(McLean 11).
Over the past several years, a great deal of controversy surrounding the
creation-evolution issue has been generated by scientists who have based their
claims on the creation model and have been willing to let their reputations
stand. Creationists have openly requested that when the discussion of origins
occurs in the public school system, both the model of creation and evolution be
presented side by side.
Initially, scientists and educators who have accepted the theory of
evolution without question were reluctant to pay any serious attention to
creationism; however, it has now become apparent that substantial numbers of
people are taking creationism seriously. Many evolutionists view this trend as
a serious threat to the advancement of science and have vowed to do everything
in their power to stop the teaching of creation in the public school system.
Most evolutionists now view creationism as nothing more than a particular
version of fundamentalist Christianity with no valid scientific content. One
hundred-fifty years ago such a theory for the origin and history of the earth
and life would have been termed absurd. Today, however, those who reject the
idea of random evolutionary processes being responsible for designing life and
shaping the geological features of the earth are termed religious, unscientific
Today, throughout the industrialized world, the moment children are able
to respond to their environment, they are constantly bombarded with the doctrine
of evolution. Faith in the biblical concept of creation by the hand of God is
ridiculed and rejected by the secular system of education. Humanistic thinking
widely accepts evolution as fact, even though "The all-too frequent picture of
evolution as a progression from ameba to man, is, and always has been, utterly
without foundation" (Weisz 665).
Oddly, it is commonly accepted that all living things are the product of
evolution, that evolution is taking place today, and that evolution will
continue to shape the destiny of life in the future.
Darwin\'s theory of evolution, based upon the idea of natural selection,
set off a bitter controversy among scientists, religious leaders, and the
general public. Noted British scientists such as Thomas Huxley and Alfred
Wallace supported Darwin\'s work, and many different groups eventually accepted
the theory of evolution.
After Darwin\'s idea of the origin and development of life became well
known, others used the concept of evolution for developing theories about
society. A number of new philosophies began to emerge based on the Darwinian
theory. These ideas came onto the world scene and made serious implications
which made a view of agnosticism and atheism respectable. "As far as Darwin was
concerned, a man\'s religion was his own affair, and he tried to keep his loss of
faith to himself" (Gregor 112). For example, the German philosopher and social
scientist Karl Marx, who is often called the founding father of the communist
movement, compared the struggle for power among social classes to the struggle
for survival among organisms. Marx was so awe stricken by the way Darwin was
able to explain away the need for God regarding the origin of life that he
decided to dedicate Das Kapital, a book against capitalism , to Charles Darwin.
Marx and other humanists of his day believed the individual, not God, is the
highest being.
The acceptance of the evolutionary doctrine soon spread throughout the
academic world in spite of the opposition put forward by scientists and
religious leaders. Most scholars who had swallowed the humanistic philosophy
were proud of the fact that they could explain the physical world around them
without relying upon God.
In many parts of the industrialized world, much of the controversy over
evolution centered on the issue whether the theory should be taught in schools.