Chapter 11

Journal 4


o 4. (a) This is true, as stated in the textbook, “Any synthetic or natural chemical can be harmful if ingested in a large quantity.” Also some chemicals that are not toxic can be more dangerous then toxic chemicals. It all matters on the chemical concentration and on the amount of detection are found.
(b) This statement is true in some part, small dosages or small exposures to toxic chemicals we should not worry about because our body can genetically adapt and clear out such chemicals. There are three ways that it is possible to be exposed to harmful chemicals and have there effects be insignificant. Enzymes found in the liver help break down, dilute or excrete small amounts of most toxins to keep them from reaching a harmful level. Individual cells have enzymes that can repair damage to DNA and protein molecules. And, cells in some parts of the body reproduce fast enough to replace damaged cells.

(c) This is not true; genetic engineering can not reduce or eliminate all types of exposures to toxic chemicals especially if we are faced with a large abundance of a certain type of toxic chemical.

o 6. I think that pollution levels should be set to protect everyone including the most sensitive and the average person. The most sensitive people so not make up most of the population but they do make up some of it and they also deserve to be able and go outside too. Also, if the population outside effects the most sensitive person it probably also effects the average person but at a different level. I think it is beneficial to all to set the population level to protect everyone.
o 7. (a) Lifestyle
1. I go tanning à skin cancer

2. Drive a car à car crash

3. Take airplanes à plane crash

4. Drink alcohol

5. I don’t eat that healthy or really exercise

(b) Live in a city

1. Can get hit by a car or t

2. Pollution

3. Around smokers àsecond hand smoke

4. Everyone lives pretty close to one another à can catch illnesses


(c) What you do for a living à Student

1. Stress

2. Can get sick easily à always around people




Some of these risks are voluntary and some are involuntary. Going tanning, drinking alcohol, not eating healthy, not exercising are all voluntary risks. If I want I can do something to avoid the risk. While other risks you can not avoid such as the pollution in your area…

Reduction of risks:

1. Eat Healthy

2. Exercise

3. Be aware of your surrounding

4. Avoid dangerous situations

5. Do not to drink alcohol or do drugs

I actually plan on trying to be aware of my surrounding; I think that this one is very important this can avoid a lot of risks. I also plan on trying to eat healthy which will probably happen for a day or two and then I will most likely go back to my old ways. I would like to say that I will exercise but I do not have energy to, when ever I think of exercise I never want to do it, I rather watch TV. I never try and get myself in dangerous situations, so I think that will be easy to part take in. I do not do drugs but I do drink which I probably will not change or stop.

Chapter 12

o 2. It is rational for a poor couple in a developing country to have four or five children. This is true because the more children you have the more children you can send off to work and make money for the family to survive. Also, in developing countries the infant mortality rate is very high, so some of the children that a family might have will die at an early age because they do not have proper resources. Some changes that might induce such a couple to consider their behavior irrational is that the infant mortality rate might decrease and also there is less need for their children to work, so they do not need as many kids. Having that many kids would serve as a negative because they do not need to work but their family does