Chad

Chad is one of the most underdeveloped countries in the world because
of its climate, geographic location, and a lack of infrastructure and natural
resources. It\'s main cash crop that is helping it\'s economy is cotton, which
accounts for 48% of exports.1 The industry of Chad is mainly based on processing
agricultural products. It is run by a republican government and it\'s legal
system is based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law. The recent
president is Idriss Deby and head of government is Prime Minister Joseph
Yodoyman Chad had gained its independence from France on August 11, 1960. Its
national holiday is held on the same day every year.

The geography of Chad is mostly pastures and meadows. Chad is located in
Central Africa and is between the Central African Republic and Libya. The total
area is 1,259,200 km2, and the land area is 1,259,200 km2.2 The total size in
area of Chad is slightly more than three times the size of California. The land
boundaries of Chad are; Cameroon (1,094 km), Central African Republic (1,197 km),
Libya (1,055 km), Niger (1,175 km), Nigeria (87 km), and Sudan (1,360 km).3 All
of these countries total to 5,968 km. Chad is landlocked which has no coastline.
It has no marital claims. The disputes between Chad and other countries is that
Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in the far north. The year
around climate is tropical in the south, and desert in the north. The terrain is
broad, arid plains in the center, desert in the north, lowlands in the south and
mountains in the northwest. The natural resources are petroleum, uranium, natron,
kaolin, and fish. The land use consists of arable land (2%), permanent crops
(0%), meadows and pastures (36%), forest and woodland (11%), and other (51%).4
The irrigated land used is 100km2. Its environment is hot, dry, dusty harmattan
winds occur in the north, drought and desertification affecting much of the
south, and subject to plagues of locusts.

The people of Chad rely on agriculture for survival. The total
population is 5,350,971 people. The growth rate of the population is 2.13%. The
birth rate is 42.21 births / 1,000 population. The death rate is 20.93 deaths /
1,000 population. The migration rate is 0% migrants / 1,000 population. Chad\'s
death at infancy is at a great risk at 134 deaths / 1,000 live births. For
infants the expectancy rate at birth is 40.41 years. The rate for males is 39.36
years and the rate for females is 41.5 years. Total fertility rate is 5.33
children born/women. The people of Chad are Chadian in nationality. The ethnic
divisions in the north are Muslim (Arabs. Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba). In the south are non-Muslims
(Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa). The religions of
Chad are Muslim (44%), Christian (33%), indigenous beliefs, and animism (23%).
The common spoken languages in Chad are Sara (spoken in south), Sango (spoken in
north). The official languages of Chad are French and Arabic. There are over 100
different languages and dialects spoken in Chad. The literacy rate is at age 15
and over people can read and write French or Arabic. The total population of
literacy is 30%. 42% for males and 18% for females.

Chad has a republican government. The capital of Chad is N\'djamena. It\'s
administrative divisions are 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem,
Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai,
Salamat, and Tandjile. Chad had gained its independence on August 11, 1960, from
France. They had gained their constitution on December 22, 1989. Chad\'s legal
system is based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law, it has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. The national holiday is held on the 11th
of August. The political parties and leaders of Chad are the Patriotic Salvation
Movement, Idriss Deby, and chairman. There are no other political party or
pressure groups. Elections were last held on July 8, 1990 and disbanded on
December 3, 1990. The Executive branch in Chad\'s government consists of the
president and the Council of State (cabinet). The Legislative branch consists of
unicameral National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif) but was
replaced by the Provisional Council of the Republic, with 30 members appointed
by President Deby on March 8, 1991. The Judicial branch consists of the Court of
Appeal. The Chief of State leader is Col. Idress Deby since December 4, 1990 and
the Head of Government is Prime Minister Joseph Yodoyman since August 1992. Chad
is a