This essay Boxers or Briefs has a total of 1886 words and 9 pages.
Boxers or Briefs
Steiner\'s model on programming preferences and broadcasting choices tries to show how stations come to the conclusion of what programming to show. This model goes on the assumption that broadcasters will go after the largest audience possible.
Going on the information given about this hypothetical situation, we can predict what each of the four stations in this market will show.
There are three distinct audience preferences. The first groups of 1200 viewers has a first programming preference of sitcoms and a second choice of soaps. The second group numbers 900 viewers and would pick cops first and soaps second. The third group, 500 viewers, likes soaps first and sitcoms and their second choice.
This model says that the audience will watch their first choice first and then the second choice, but only is their first choice is not available.
Let\'s say that the Federal Communications Commission licenses station A in their market. Looking at the viewer preferences, station A would start to broadcast soaps. By show soaps, it would capture a market of 2600 viewers. All viewers would watch because soaps is their first choice or it is their second choice but their first is not available.
The FCC then offers a license to station B. After examining the audience sizes, stations B also starts to show soaps. By programming to this audience, it splits the soaps market with station A and both of them have 1300 viewers.
Station B does not pick another programming because no other choice can offer more than 1300 viewers.
When the FCC offers a license to station C, things will definitely change in this market. Station C sees the biggest audience available is the sitcom market with 1200 viewers.
But when station C takes that 1200 viewers from the soap audience which hold sitcoms as their first choice, station A and B will both drop to 700 viewers. They now have to make a decision. Both can find larger markets elsewhere.
One station, and it does not matter which one, will switch to cop shows. For this hypothetical, station B would choose cops for 900 viewers.
Station A, who still is showing soaps, now only has 500 viewers. It does not like that, so it starts to show sitcoms. Audience 3, with 500 viewers, now is watching sitcoms because there are no soaps out there. Station A and C are both showing sitcoms and are splitting a viewer audience of 1700 for 850 each.
Now that the viewers are confused about what station is showing what, the FCC offers a fourth license to station D. After examination, station D decides to start broadcasting sitcoms in competition with stations A and C. All three stations have an audience share of 566. That is more than the 500 soap viewers or splitting the 900 cops viewers with station B.
Although Steiner\'s model is not too far off what happens in today\'s television landscape, it does have a couple of drawbacks that keeps it from being a true model.
Steiner does not take into consideration that some audiences are more valuable to advertisers than others. Because advertisers want certain viewers, stations might program to that audience to attract more advertising dollars.
Steiner also assumes that as stations go into competition with another station, they will split the audience equally. That is not always the case. Viewers will watch the station they believe has the better quality, even if there are two or three stations showing the same thing.
This model does offer some insights on how stations and networks make decisions. Just look at the TV Guide and see how many sitcoms there are on any given night.
This also shows why some minority viewers never get programming directed at them. The stations are going to the majority audiences which have larger numbers. The minority viewer preferences, under these model, have to have another station before they get to see their shows, in this situation.
First Copy COsts
First copy costs in the newspaper industry are the fixed costs of owning a paper and printing the first one.
First copy costs include the money spend on items that are necessary for the newspaper to be printed. These fixed costs do not vary as the number of papers increases or decreases. Because they do not vary, they are very
Topics Related to Boxers or Briefs
Cable television, Television program, TBS, Television in the United States, Cable television in the United States
Essays Related to Boxers or Briefs
ISDN vs. Cable ModemsISDN vs. Cable Modems 1.0 Introduction The Internet is a network of networks that interconnects computers around the world, supporting both business and residential users. In 1994, a multimedia Internet application known as the World Wide Web became popular. The higher bandwidth needs of this application have highlighted the limited Internet access speeds available to residential users. Even at 28.8 Kilobits per second (Kbps)— the fastest residential access commonly available at the time of this
Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corporation TABLE OF CONTENTS MICROSOFT HISTORY 1 EARLY INFLUENCES 2 FIRST BUSINESS VENTURE 3 EDUCATION ATTEMPT 3 THE MOTIVATIONAL SIDE OF FEAR 4 A JAPANESE CONNECTION 5 IBM INFLUENCE 5 SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST 6 A CRUCIAL DEAL 6 COMPETITION ERRORS 7 BIRTH OF WINDOWS 7 MISSION STATEMENT AND ANALYSIS 8 INDUSTRY AND COMPETITVE ANALYSIS 9 DOMINANT ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 9 Market Differentiation 9 Pace of technological change 10 Advances to the Printed Word 11 DRIVING FORCES 12 The Intern
SHAKESPEARE; Othello & King Lear - A comparisonSHAKESPEARE; Othello & King Lear - A comparison If Shakespeare was alive today it is certain that there would be a lot written about him. We would read reviews of his new plays in newspapers, articles about his poetry in the literary papers, and gossip about his love life and his taste in clothes splashed across the glossy magazines. His views about everything under the sun, from the government to kitchen furniture, would probably appear regularly in the colour supplements. His face would be fam
TelecommunicationsTelecommunications The transmission of words, sounds, images, or data in the form of electronic or electromagnetic signals or impulses. Transmission media include the telephone (using wire or optical cable), radio, television, microwave, and satellite. Data communication, the fastest growing field of telecommunication, is the process of transmitting data in digital form by wire or radio. Digital data can be generated directly in a 1/0 binary code by a computer or can be produced from a voice or
An Insight Into Virtual RealityAn Insight Into Virtual Reality Virtual Reality is a creation of a highly interactive computer based multimedia environment in which the user becomes a participant with the computer in a virtually real world We are living in an era characterized by 3D virtual systems created by computer graphics. In the concept called Virtual Reality (VR), the virtual reality engineer is combining computer, video, image-processing, and sensor technologies so that a human can enter into and react with spaces ge
William Gibson and The InternetWilliam Gibson and The Internet Introduction The words Internet and world wide web are becoming everyday use these days, it has exploded into the mass market of information and advertising. There are bad points about the net as well as good points, this relatively new medium is growing at such a rate that the media have to take it seriously. This new form of communication was mainly populated by small groups of communities, but now that it is getting much easier to access the web these gro
LeadLead Lead is a lustrous, silvery metal that tarnishes in the presence of air and becomes a dull bluish gray. Soft and flexible, it has a low melting point (327 C). Its chemical symbol, Pb, is from plumbum, the Latin word for waterworks, because of lead\'s extensive use in ancient water pipes. Itsatomic number is 82; its atomic weight is 207.19. Lead and lead compounds can be highly toxic when eaten or inhaled. Although lead is absorbed very slowly into the body, its rate of excretion is even slo
Nikola TeslaNikola Tesla Were we to seize and eliminate from our industrial world the results of Mr. Tesla\'s work, the wheels of industry would cease to turn, our electric cars and trains would stop, our towns would be dark, our mills would be dead and idle. Yes, so far reaching is his work that it has become the warp and woof of industry... His name marks an epoch in the advance of electrical science. From that work has sprung a revolution... -B.A. Behrend If you were to go to an encyclopedia and tried to
Virtual RealityVirtual Reality Virtual Reality is a creation of a highly interactive computer based multimedia environment in which the user becomes a participant with the computer in a virtually real world We are living in an era characterized by 3D virtual systems created by computer graphics. In the concept called Virtual Reality (VR), the virtual reality engineer is combining computer, video, image-processing, and sensor technologies so that a human can enter into and react with spaces generated by compute
Planning Your Proxy Server ImplementationPlanning Your Proxy Server Implementation By Donald Rohrbacher ___________________________________________ Planning Your Proxy Server Implementation A key factor in determining the success of any installation is planning. Planning involves several phases-from understanding your current capabilities, to determining your current needs, anticipating your future needs, and, ultimately, finding a viable solution. We have all been in situations where the immediate need surpassed the need for planning
Iraq: A Country on the RiseIraq: A Country on the Rise Lauterbach, Kevin History, Period 4 January 7, 1996 Iraq is a country that is on the rise. After being crushed by allied troops for their invasion of Kuwait, they have begun the slow rebuilding process. In this report, I will discuss the basic geographic features of Iraq, and other various important features such as mineral wealth, vegetation, ect. Iraq\'s total area is 271,128 square miles (just slightly more than twice the size of Idaho). It\'s capital, Baghdad, is
IraqIraq Lauterbach, Kevin History, Period 4 January 7, 1996 Iraq: A Country on the Rise Iraq is a country that is on the rise. After being crushed by allied troops for their invasion of Kuwait, they have begun the slow rebuilding process. In this report, I will discuss the basic geographic features of Iraq, and other various important features such as mineral wealth, vegetation, ect. Iraq\'s total area is 271,128 square miles (just slightly more than twice the size of Idaho). It\'s capital, Baghdad
Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta fCyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age This statement represents the cumulative wisdom and innovation of many dozens of people. It is based primarily on the thoughts of four co-authors: Ms. Esther Dyson; Mr. George Gilder; Dr. George Keyworth; and Dr. Alvin Toffler. This release 1.2 has the final imprimatur of no one. In the spirit of the age: It is copyrighted solely for the purpose of preventing someone else from doing so. If you have it, you can use it any
Fiber OpticsFiber Optics Fiber Optic Cable Facts A relatively new technology with vast potential importance, fiber optics is the channeled transmission of light through hair-thin glass fibers. [ Less expensive than copper cables [ Raw material is silica sand [ Less expensive to maintain If damaged, restoration time is faster (although more users are affected) [ Backbone to the Information Superhighway Information (data and voice) is transmitted through the fiber digitally by the use of high speed LASERs (
Coaxial CablesCoaxial Cables Introduction Many people may not know it, but they use transmission lines everyday. For example, when you turn on the television in the morning to see what the weather is going to be like or if you pick up the phone to call that special someone, you are using transmission lines. Transmission lines is defined as the conductive connections between communication system elements that carry signal. In the next few pages I’ll be talking about different types of transmission lines along
AlgeriaAlgeria Introduction The last time I was in Algeria is 15 years ago. Back then it was save for me to travel in Algeria and to see the familiy of my mothers side. The reason why I chose this country is not because I identify myself with Algeria but the complete opposite. I don’t speak Arabic and I know very little about Algeria’s historical background. The reason why I chose Algeria is to find out more about the country my mother is from. First I will outline the history of Algeria (early and rec
LighteningLightening Have you ever wonder why when it starts to rain and lightening your satellite or cable goes out? It can happen in a split second. Lightening bolts strike your home, or your satellite, sending destructive pulses of energy through electrical wires. Electronic equipment such as satellite dish systems, antennas, televisioncable hardware, and even sprinkler systems can be damaged. Lightening is constantly striking the earth. The damages of lightening can be devastating, and costly. The ou
Similarities and Differences Among All-News CablesSimilarities and Differences Among All-News Cables Networks Similarities and Differences 1 Running head: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG ALL-NEWS CABLE NETWORKS: CNN, MSNBC, AND FOXNEWS CHANNEL SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG ALL-NEWS CABLE NETWORKS: CNN, MSNBC, AND FOXNEWS CHANNEL Deborah A. Neals Barry University Similarities and Differences 2 Successful programming is vital to a television property since it spells the difference between profit and loss. Unpopular programming results in
MEDIA, CULTURE AND SOCIETY ESSAYMEDIA, CULTURE AND SOCIETY ESSAY -THE NEWS MEDIA Horror movie right there on my TV Shocking me right out of my brains Horror movie, its the six thirty News. - The Skyhooks. The news media is in our face each and everyday with immaculate women and fatherly men bringing us up to date around the clock. I am, of course, specifically talking about television news, however, much of what I will say is true for radio and print news as well. But what is news? Stuart Hall, 1978 quotes: At any given moment
DESCRIPTION OF A NETWORKDESCRIPTION OF A NETWORK A network is the linking of two or more computers for the purpose of sharing data, programs and/or physical resources. · Examples: · Data Two people can work independently on the same project at different computers. By being connected to each other, there is no need for swapping floppy copies with the possibility of loss or old revisions creeping into the work flow. · Programs One copy of a program can be purchased and placed on one computer, and others connected may be
THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNETTHE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET It\'s on television, in magazines, newspapers, and in our schools. Everywhere you go you hear about the Internet. Dubbed The Information Superhighway, one might think that this network of millions of computers around the globe is as fast and as captivating as television, but with more and more users logging on everyday and staying on longer and longer, this Information Superhighway could be perhaps more correctly referred to as a clogged Los-Angeles expressway at l
Virtual RealityVirtual Reality I. What is Virtual Reality The term Virtual Reality (VR) is used by many different people with many meanings. There are some people to whom VR is a specific collection of technologies, that is a Head Mounted Display, Glove Input Device and Audio. Some other people stretch the term to include conventional books, movies or pure fantasy and imagination. The NSF taxonomy mentioned in the introduction can cover these as well. However, my personal preference, and for purposes of this p
ISDN VS. cABLE MODEMSISDN VS. cABLE MODEMS 1.0 Introduction The Internet is a network of networks that interconnects computers around the world, supporting both business and residential users. In 1994, a multimedia Internet application known as the World Wide Web became popular. The higher bandwidth needs of this application have highlighted the limited Internet access speeds available to residential users. Even at 28.8 Kilobits per second (Kbps)—the fastest residential access commonly available at the time of this
MultimediaMultimedia As a technology, it is called multimedia. As a revolution, it is the sum of many revolutions wrapped into one: A revolution in communication that combines the audio visual power of television, the publishing power of the printing press, and the interactive power of the computer. Multimedia is the convergence of these different professions, once thought independent of one another, coming together to form a new technological approach to the way information and ideas are shared. What wil
What HDTV IsWhat HDTV Is Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Positive is expressed or represented by the number 1 and non-positive by the number 0 (Lasica). Data that is transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0\'s and 1\'s. Each of these digits is referred too as a bit (and a string of bits that a computer can address individually as a group is a byte). Prior to digital techno
Nick Adams in Hemingway's StoriesNick Adams in Hemingway\'s Stories The Nick Adams stories were my favorite of the collection because I got to know Nick through the reading. I started to understand Nick and I could anticipate the actions and feelings that he was feeling. I am not sure if this is because I became familiar with Nick or because I have done many of the things Nick has done and was able to understand what he was doing. Big Two-Hearted River: Part I and II were the most enjoyable short stories of the ones I read. T
Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Grim Prediction Of The FutNineteen Eighty-Four: A Grim Prediction Of The Future Nineteen Eighty-Four was written between the years of 1945 and 1948. Orwell got the title from switching the last two numbers of the publication date. In Orwell’s criticism of a perfect society, his book became known as one of the greatest anti-utopian novels of all time. The book’s message is so powerful that some say it went so far as to prevent the sinister future from realizing itself. Althought the book starts out as the story of a neuro
Women As News AnchorsWomen As News Anchors Women in all careers are striving to gain equality in the work force today, and female television news anchors are definitely part of the fight. The road to television news anchoring is a rocky one, where only a few women survive and many fail. Where progress was once thought to have been made, there aren\'t many females getting ahead in the world of television news. Today, there is a very slow, if any, gain in the numbers of women who succeed. There are many questions surr
The DelugeThe Deluge Exhausted, Kendra leaned back against the tree. The quiet of the night surrounded her, and in the distance she could see a small orange glow here and there of fires set by those who had been forced to leave their homes and set up camp in this park. She closed her eyes, rested her arms on her knees, and put her head down on her arms, cushioned by the sweatshirt she wore. The sweatshirt smelled of fresh air and smoke. She pulled the sleeves down over her cold hands. She sat like that fo
What Makes Those X-Men So Darn GreatWhat Makes Those X-Men So Darn Great Why Does Zach Like Those So Much? Zach Dotsey English 101 Section 30 12 December, 1996 Third and Final Draft When many people hear about the X-Men, they think of a silly kid’s comic book, but that is not so. X-Men, actually most comic books in general, are a unique blend of two classic art forms; drawings, sometimes even paintings, and storytelling. A comic artist must be able to convey the right mood and feeling for his or her art. They must also be able to
Broadcasting and ProgramingBroadcasting and Programing Steiner\'s Model Steiner\'s model on programming preferences and broadcasting choices tries to show how stations come to the conclusion of what programming to show. This model goes on the assumption that broadcasters will go after the largest audience possible. Going on the information given about this hypothetical situation, we can predict what each of the four stations in this market will show. There are three distinct audience preferences. The first groups of 1200
What Are The History, Laws, Profitability, and ResWhat Are The History, Laws, Profitability, and Responsibilities To The Consumer Of Advertising Hard Liquor on TV In The United States? INTRODUCTION Purpose The goal of this report is to inform the reader of the recent events that prompted hard liquor advertising on TV. In addition, the laws associated with advertising across this media, as well as recent legislative endeavors to control such advertising. Furthermore, the report also focuses on the potential profitability the distilled spirit\'s
Boxers or BriefsBoxers or Briefs Steiner\'s Model Steiner\'s model on programming preferences and broadcasting choices tries to show how stations come to the conclusion of what programming to show. This model goes on the assumption that broadcasters will go after the largest audience possible. Going on the information given about this hypothetical situation, we can predict what each of the four stations in this market will show. There are three distinct audience preferences. The first groups of 1200 viewers has
What are the History, Laws, Profitability and SociWhat are the History, Laws, Profitability and Social Responab WHAT ARE THE HISTORY, LAWS, PROFITABILITY, AND RESPONSIBILITES TO THE CONSUMER OF ADVERTISING HARD LIQUOR ON TV IN THE UNITED STATES? INTRODUCTION Purpose The goal of this report is to inform the reader of the recent events that prompted hard liquor advertising on TV. In addition, the laws associated with advertising across this media, as well as recent legislative endeavors to control such advertising. Furthermore, the report also fo
Internet in the ClassroomInternet in the Classroom The Internet is a network of millions of computers worldwide, connected together. It is an elaborate source of education, information, entertainment, and communication. Recently, President Bill Clinton expressed an idea to put the Internet into every classroom in America by the year 2000. Considering the magnitude of this problem, and the costs involved, it is not realistically possible to set this as a goal. The Internet allows the almost five million computers 
James Earl Jones: A Voice in the CrowdJames Earl Jones: A Voice in the Crowd March 19, 1996 People all around the world know the voice of James Earl Jones. From Star Wars fans listening to the voice of Darth Vader to news junkies who hear a voice that dramatically intones AThis is [email protected] just before all the cable network= s station breaks to children who hear the stately voice of the majestic Mufasa, the king of the jungle in Walt Disney Pictures= animated The Lion King - people know this deep harmonious voice belongs to this consumma
The Effects of MediaThe Effects of Media An image, disturbing to picture, of a child’s mind and inside the child’s mind is a schema of every concept the adolescent has ever taken in. A Nazi swastika symbolizes an evil hatred from history, the child has learned that prejudice is wrong. A mental picture of a young bride walking down an isle, the child knows marriage is sacred and that the woman can take pride in her white dress. A Coke bottle brings the sweetness of cola to the youth’s taste buds. This person was bio
Bill GatesBill Gates William Henry Gates, III was born October 28, 1955 in Seattle, Washington. He was the middle child of three born to William and Mary Gates. ATrey, as he was called because of the III, was sent to a private school by his father, a lawyer, and mother, a former teacher now on several prestigious boards (Moritz, 238). At age 13, Bill had completely taught himself programming after taking computer studies class. After scoring a perfect 800 on the mathematics half of the SAT, he graduated f
James Earl Jones- A Voice in the CrowdJames Earl Jones- A Voice in the Crowd James Earl Jones: A Voice in the Crowd March 19, 1996 This page intentionally left blank People all around the world know the voice of James Earl Jones. From Star Wars fans listening to the voice of Darth Vader to news junkies who hear a voice that dramatically intones AThis is [email protected] just before all the cable network=s station breaks to children who hear the stately voice of the majestic Mufasa, the king of the jungle in Walt Disney Pictures= animated The Li
How the Simpsons affect kidsHow the Simpsons affect kids How The Simpsons Affects Kids The Simpsons is one of Americas most popular television shows. It ranks as the number one television program for viewers under eighteen years of age. However, the ideals that The Simpsons conveys are not always wholesome, sometimes not even in good taste. It is inevitable that The Simpsons is affecting children. Matt Groening took up drawing to escape from his troubles in 1977. At the time, Groening was working for the L.A. Reader, a fre
Press FreedomPress Freedom From the moment she stepped foot outside, Princess Diana of Whales had camera lenses and microphones pushed in her face. She was constantly pursued and for this reason she sometimes had to hide or disguise herself in order to avoid the unyielding persistence and constant harassment of the press. Eugene Robinson, a journalist in England said, For the tabloids, day in and day out, no story is bigger than the royal family. All the tabloids employ royal-watching reporters, some of whom
Private Cable TVPrivate Cable TV The times are achanging... How France, Germany and Sweden introduced private, cable and satellite TV - a comparison over the past 10 years. 1. INTRODUCTION Why we have chosen this subject? Before starting to write about TV in Sweden, Germany and France, we wanted to compare French,German and Swedish media. But on account of the wideness of this analysis, we decided to focus on the evolution of TV broadcasting during these last 10 years. The technical revolution which has appeare
Regulating The Internet: Who's In ChargeRegulating The Internet: Who\'s In Charge James H Huff English 111G Fall 1996 The internet was started by the military in the late forties, and has since grown to an incredibly large and complex web, which will no doubt effect all of us in the years to come. The press has recently taken it upon themselves to educate the public to the dark side of this web, a network which should be veiwed as a tremendous resource of information and entertainment. Instead, due to this negative image, more and mor
SatellitesSatellites Satellite is probably the most useful invention since the wheel. Satellites have the capability to let you talk with someone across the nation or let you close a business deal through video communication. Almost everything today is heading towards the use of satellites, such as telephones. At&t has used this communications satellite (top right) ever since the late 1950s. TVS and radios are also turning to the use of satellites. RCA and Sony have released satellite dishes for Radio and
Apollo 4Apollo 4 Introduction This paper is going to compare the Apollo 1 and the Challenger disasters. Both space programs were unfortunate disasters, caused by a series of oversights and misjudgments. How did this lost of life occur in such a high tech environment? Apollo 4 On January 27, 1967, the three astronauts of the Apollo 4, were doing a test countdown on the launch pad. Gus Grissom was in charge. His crew were Edward H. White, the first American to walk in space, and Roger B. Chaffee, a naval
The Telephone SystemThe Telephone System The telephone is one of the most creative and prized inventions in the world. It has advanced from its humble beginnings to its wireless communication technology today and for the future. The inhabitants of the earth have long communicated over a distance, which has been done by shouting from one hilltop or tower to another. The word telephone originated from a combination of two Greek words: tele, meaning far off, and phone, meaning voice or sound, and became the know
Digital BroadcastingDigital Broadcasting Abstract This essay intends to discuss the following statement; Digital Broadcasting will have a fundamental effect on viewing patterns, popular culture and audience identity. This will be done firstly by looking at the history of the BBC and the original intention of Public Service Broadcasting. It will discuss how by John Reith’s successful approach to broadcasting, the BBC became a National Institution creating popular culture and a National Identity. It will examine how
Religion In MediaReligion In Media There are presently 35 television stations owned and operated by religious organizations, but every television station features religious programming in one way or another (Postman, 116). Religious television program producers are driven by the desire to make money, and they find the best way to accomplish this is by scamming viewers and members. During this process, religion loses its authenticity. Religion is not being practiced on television, it is being mocked. Religion is
Telecommunications & Networking ReportTelecommunications & Networking Report 1. 23-Sep-99: “Free Web Services Challenge AOL’s Dominance” - Internet business analysts generally are not yet convinced of the viability of the free web service business model for bring profitable. None-the-less, most agree that the free access will probably take a significant chunk of AOL’s market share before running out of investor’s money. 2. 23-Sep-99: “Visitalk.com Builds White Pages for Web Phone Calls” - Visitalk.com has unveiled plans to simplify
The Role Of LanguageThe Role Of Language The Role of Language Can contemporary discourse presume a community of interest? In order to answer this question, one is forced to first answer the question, can language be used to reveal anything new? If the answer is yes, then how can it do this and how can we employ it to do this for us. Also, one is forced to ask what is it exactly that we are looking for? Once we’ve found it, how can we use it to improve our present condition? Plato and Descartes both believe that lan