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2.1 Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis. (Describe, analyse, explain)
2.1 Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). (Outline, describe, analyse)
2.2 Explain one study related to localization of function. (Describe, analyse, outline)
2.3 Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission and human behaviour. (Describe, analyse, outline)
2.4 Using one or more examples explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour. (Describe, analyse, outline)
ERQs and SAQs
Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis. (SAQ: Describe, analyse, explain; ERQ: compare/contrast, evaluate, examine)
Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the biological level of analysis. (SAQ: Describe, analyse, explain; ERQ: examine)
Discuss two effects of the environment on physiological processes. (SAQ: Describe, analyse, explain; ERQ: examine, to what extent, evaluate)
Examine one interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of behaviour. (SAQ: Describe, outline, analyse, explain; ERQ: discuss, to what extent, evaluate)
ERQs and SAQs
Discuss the use of brain imaging technologies in investigation the relationship between biological factors and behaviour. (SAQ: Describe, analyse, explain; ERQ: examine, evaluate)
With reference to relevant research studies, to what extent does genetic inheritance influence behaviour? (SAQ: Describe, analyse, explain; ERQ: examine, to what extent, evaluate)
Examine one evolutionary explanation of behaviour. (SAQ: outline, describe, analyse, explain; ERQ: discuss, evaluate)
Discuss ethical considerations in research into genetic influences of behaviour. (SAQ: Describe, analyse, explain; ERQ: examine)
Concordance rate: The probability that a pair of individuals will both have a certain characteristic, given that one of the pair has the characteristic. In the case of twin studies, it is the probability that if one twin has a trait, that the other will also have that trait. Genetics are studied through the use of correlational studies. In these studies, data is gathered through interviews, psychometric testing (e.g. IQ tests) archival research or observational study in order to establish whether there is a relationship between two variables. No cause and effect can be established. It is unknown whether A influences B, B influences A, whether they both influence each other, or whether there is no influence of one on the other at all.
Dizygotic twins: The clinical term for fraternal twins; this occurs when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterus wall at the same time. When two eggs are independently fertilized by two different sperm cells, fraternal twins result. The genetic similarity is the same as any other siblings.
Epigenetics: A branch of genetics that focuses son "gene expression" - that is, how environmental factors may "activate" genes.
Genetic vulnerability: An underlying inherited susceptibility - that is, the theory that you may have genes that may make you more likely to have certain traits if those genes are exposed to the appropriate environmental stressors.
Monozygotic twins: The clinical term for identical twins; they share 100% of their DNA.
Self-fulfilling prophecy: A prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true. For example, telling an identical twin that there is a high chance that since his twin has depression, that he might get it as well. Then the twin begins to show symptoms. This could be caused by the prediction rather than by the genes.
Ethical considerations in genetic research
Confidentiality of the data; for example, should such data be available to insurance companies?
The problem of self-fulfilling prophecies. This could also be a source of undue stress, knowing that there is a chance that you may develop schizophrenia like your twin.
Informed consent. It is a question whether people really understand the implications of genetic research. Does their inability to understand mean that they cannot really give informed consent?
When researchers use someone's genetic material for research. what are the requirements for confidentiality, compensation for profits earned or ability to share the genetic material with other researchers?
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