Black Holes 2

Everyday we
look out upon the night sky, wondering and
dreaming of what lies beyond our planet. The
universe that we live in is so diverse and unique,
and it interests us to learn about all the variance
that lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of
wonders our universe holds a mystery that is very
difficult to understand because of the
complications that arise when trying to examine
and explore the principles of space. That mystery
happens to be that of the ever clandestine, black
hole. This essay will hopefully give you the
knowledge and understanding of the concepts,
properties, and processes involved with the space
phenomenon of the black hole. It will describe
how a black hole is generally formed, how it
functions, and the effects it has on the universe. In
order to understand what exactly a black hole is,
we must first take a look at the basis for the cause
of a black hole. All black holes are formed from
the gravitational collapse of a star, usually having a
great, massive, core. A star is created when huge,
gigantic, gas clouds bind together due to attractive
forces and form a hot core, combined from all the
energy of the two gas clouds. This energy
produced is so great when it first collides, that a
nuclear reaction occurs and the gases within the
star start to burn continuously. The Hydrogen gas
is usually the first type of gas consumed in a star
and then other gas elements such as Carbon,
Oxygen, and Helium are consumed. This chain
reaction fuels the star for millions or billions of
years depending upon the amount of gases there
are. The star manages to avoid collapsing at this
point because of the equilibrium achieved by itself.
The gravitational pull from the core of the star is
equal to the gravitational pull of the gases forming
a type of orbit, however when this equality is
broken the star can go into several different
stages. Usually if the star is small in mass, most of
the gases will be consumed while some of it
escapes. This occurs because there is not a
tremendous gravitational pull upon those gases and
therefore the star weakens and becomes smaller.
It is then referred to as a White Dwarf. If the star
was to have a larger mass however, then it may
possibly Supernova, meaning that the nuclear
fusion within the star simply goes out of control
causing the star to explode. After exploding a
fraction of the star is usually left (if it has not turned
into pure gas) and that fraction of the star is
known as a neutron star. A black hole is one of
the last option that a star may take. If the core of
the star is so massive (approximately 6-8 solar
masses; one solar mass being equal to the sun\'s
mass) then it is most likely that when the star\'s
gases are almost consumed those gases will
collapse inward, forced into the core by the
gravitational force laid upon them. After a black
hole is created, the gravitational force continues to
pull in space debris and other type of matters to
help add to the mass of the core, making the hole
stronger and more powerful. Most black holes
tend to be in a consistent spinning motion. This
motion absorbs various matter and spins it within
the ring (known as the Event Horizon) that is
formed around the black hole. The matter keeps
within the Event Horizon until it has spun into the
centre where it is concentrated within the core
adding to the mass. Such spinning black holes are
known as Kerr Black Holes. Most black holes
orbit around stars due to the fact that they once
were a star, and this may cause some problems
for the neighbouring stars. If a black hole gets
powerful enough it may actually pull a star into it
and disrupt the orbit of many other stars. The
black hole could then grow even stronger (from
the star\'s mass) as to possibly absorb another.
When a black hole absorbs a star, the star is first
pulled into the Ergosphere, which sweeps all the
matter into the Event Horizon, named for it\'s flat
horizontal appearance and because this happens
to be the place where mostly all the action within
the black hole occurs. When the star is passed on
into the Event Horizon the light that the star
endures is bent within the current and therefore
cannot be seen in space. At this exact point in
time, high amounts of radiation are given off, that
with the proper equipment can be detected and
seen as an image of a black hole. Through this
technique astronomers now believe that they have
found a black