Bed-wetting, or enuresis, is
involuntary urination that usually occurs during
sleep. It is common in children up to age 5, and
about 15 percent of older children aged 5 to 13
also have bed-wetting episodes. The precise
cause is unknown, but it may be due to delayed
development of bladder capacity, constipation, or
diseases, such as urinary tract infection, kidney
disease, or diabetes mellitus. Emotionally stressful
events, such as hospitalization or loss of a parent,
may contribute to enuresis. In most cases children
outgrow the problem, but persistent cases require
a physical examination in case there is an
underlying medical problem. Enuresis not caused
by a physical problem can be halted with effective
behavior-modification therapies. Another
technique uses a battery-operated urinary alarm
that is set off by wetting; eventually the child learns
to waken before the alarm. In rare cases the drug
imipramine is prescribed. Bibliography: Welford,
Heather, Toilet Training and Bed Wetting (1988).

Category: Science