This essay Anti-Matter has a total of 1293 words and 8 pages.
Ordinary matter has negatively charged electrons circling a positively charged nuclei. Anti-matter has positively charged electrons - positrons - orbiting a nuclei with a negative charge - anti-protons. Only anti-protons and positrons are able to be produced at this time, but scientists in Switzerland have begun a series of experiments which they believe will lead to the creation of the first anti-matter element -- Anti-Hydrogen.
Early scientists often made two mistakes about anti-matter. Some thought it had a negative mass, and would thus feel gravity as a push rather than a pull. If this were so, the antiproton\'s negative mass/energy would cancel the proton\'s when they met and nothing would remain; in reality, two extremely high-energy gamma photons are produced. Today\'s theories of the universe say that there is no such thing as a negative mass. The second and more subtle mistake is the idea that anti-water would only annihilate with ordinary water, and could safety be kept in (say) an iron container. This is not so: it is the subatomic particles that react so destructively, and their arrangement makes no difference. Scientists at CERN in Geneva are working on a device called the LEAR (low energy anti-proton ring) in an attempt to slow the velocity of the anti-protons to a billionth of their normal speeds. The slowing of the anti-protons and positrons, which normally travel at a velocity of that near the speed of light, is neccesary so that they have a chance of meeting and combining into anti-hydrogen.
The problems with research in the field of anti-matter is that when the anti-matter elements touch matter elements they annihilate each other. The total combined mass of both elements are released in a spectacular blast of energy. Electrons and positrons come together and vanish into high-energy gamma rays (plus a certain number of harmless neutrinos, which pass through whole planets without effect). Hitting ordinary matter, 1 kg of anti-matter explodes with the force of up to 43 million tons of TNT - as though several thousand Hiroshima bombs were detonated at once.
So how can anti-matter be stored? Space seems the only place, both for storage and for large-scale production. On Earth, gravity will sooner or later pull any anti-matter into disastrous contact with matter. Anti-matter has the opposite effect of gravity on it, the anti-matter is \'pushed away\' by the gravitational force due to its opposite nature to that of matter. A way around the gravity problem appears at CERN, where fast moving anti-protons can be held in a \'storage ring\' around which they constantly move - and kept away from the walls of the vacuum chamber - by magnetic fields. However, this only works for charged particles, it does not work for anti-neutrons, for example.
The Unanswerable Question
Though anti-matter can be manufactured, slowly, natural anti-matter has never been found. In theory, we should expect equal amounts of matter and anti-matter to be formed at the beginning of the universe - perhaps some far off galaxies are the made of anti-matter that somehow became separated from matter long ago. A problem with the theory is that cosmic rays that reach Earth from far-off parts are often made up of protons or even nuclei, never of anti-protons or antinuclei. There may be no natural anti-matter anywhere.
In that case, what happened to it? The most obvious answer is that, as predicted by theory, all the matter and anti-matter underwent mutual annihilation in the first seconds of creation; but why there do we still have matter? It seems unlikely that more matter than anti-matter should be formed. In this scenario, the matter would have to exceed the anti-matter by one part in 1000 million.
An alternative theory is produced by the physicist M. Goldhaber in 1956, is that the universe divided into two parts after its formation - the universe that we live in, and an alternate universe of anti-matter that cannot be observed by us. The Chemistry Though they have no charge, anti-neutrons differ from neutrons in having opposite \'spin\' and \'baryon number\'. All heavy particles, like protons or neutrons, are called baryons. A firm rule is that the total baryon number cannot change, though this apparently fails inside black holes. A neutron (baryon number +1) can become a
Topics Related to Anti-Matter
Elementary particles, Leptons, Physical cosmology, Particle physics, Quantum electrodynamics, Antimatter, Positron, Matter, Proton, Neutron, Big Bang, Electron
Essays Related to Anti-Matter
Werner HeisenbergWerner Heisenberg One cannot fully appreciate the work of Werner Heisenberg unless one examines his contributions in the context of the time in which he lived. Werner Karl Heisenberg was born in Wuerzburg, Germany, on December 5, 1901, and grew up in academic surroundings, in a household devoted to the humanities. His father was a professor at the University of Munich and undoubtedly greatly influenced young Werner, who was a student at the Maximilian Gymnasium. Heisenberg had the opportunity to
Werner HeisenbergWerner Heisenberg Werner Heisenberg One cannot fully appreciate the work of Werner Heisenberg unless one examines his contributions in the context of the time in which he lived. Werner Karl Heisenberg was born in Wuerzburg, Germany, on December 5, 1901, and grew up in academic surroundings, in a household devoted to the humanities. His father was a professor at the University of Munich and undoubtedly greatly influenced young Werner, who was a student at the Maximilian Gymnasium. Heisenberg had
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein Einstein was a German/American physicist who contributed more to the 20th century vision of physical reality than any other scientist. Einstein\'s theory of RELATIVITY seemed to a lot of people to be pure human thought, as did his other theories. LIFE Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Einstein\'s parents were nonobservant Jews. They moved to Munich from Ulm when Einstein was an infant. The family business was to manufacture electrical equipment. When th
The Cosmos: CreationThe Cosmos: Creation Where is the universe from? Where is it going? How is it put together? How did it get to be this way. These are Big questions. Very easy to ask but almost impossible to answer. We want answers for philosophical reason having nothing to do with science. No one will get rich from discovering the structure of the universe unless they right a book about it. The area of science dealing with Big questions is called cosmology. The reason for it\'s study is found in the fact that: T
Historical Development of Atomic StructureHistorical Development of Atomic Structure Yazan Fahmawi Sept. 30, 1995 T3 IBS Chemistry Ms. Redman The idea behind the atom goes back to the Ancient Greek society, where scientists believed that all matter was made of smaller, more fundamental particles called elements. They called these particles atoms, meaning not divisible. Then came the chemists and physicists of the 16th and 17th centuries who discovered various formulae of various salts and water, hence discovering the idea of a molec
The Discovery Of The ElectronThe Discovery Of The Electron The electron was discovered in 1895 by J.J. Thomson in the form of cathode rays, and was the first elementary particle to be identified. The electron is the lightest known particle which possesses an electric charge. Its rest mass is Me approximately equal> 9.1 x 10 -28 g, about 1/1836 of the mass of the proton or neutron. The charge of the electron is -e = -4.8 x 10^-10 esu elec trostatic unit). The sign of the electron\'s charge is negative by convention, and that
Choas Theory In BiologyChoas Theory In Biology Chaos In Biological Systems In today’s world of high-tech methods to study just about anything that exists, we are still imperfect. Scientists continue to look for ways to understand, explain, and even predict the actions and reactions of the universe. In the last two centuries, scientists have been looking in every possible place to understand the universe; from science, to math, even religion. They have turned to mathematicians and their strange theories of determinism
The Northern LightsThe Northern Lights The Northern lights are poetry, they are nature\'s light show, and they are quantum leaps in the oxygen atom. They are elementary particle physics, superstition, mythology and fairy tales. The northern lights have filled people with wonder and inspired artists; they have frightened people to think that the end is at hand. More exact explanations of the phenomenon could not be given until modern particle physics were developed, and knowledge about details in the earth’s magnet
Views Of MatterViews Of Matter What exactly is matter, it is not an every day question that one asks one’s own self. When looked at there are many different views on this subject, however because of the numerous numbers of different views, it is only possible to look at three of the discourses. The three discourses of matter to be looked at are; the Religious, Scientific, and Philosophical. Each discourse has evolved through time into the views that we know, and accept today. The distinction between these view
Einstein: Visionary ScientistEinstein: Visionary Scientist English 10-A 5/12/2003 Einstein: Visionary Scientist is a look into the acclaimed physicists like and work. It tells about Albert, his wife Mileva and some of their troubles. The book was written to show insight into the life of this genius. His work was a great addition to the progressive era, which later lead to the development of the atomic bomb and even now is the basis of much scientific research. This book starts with the younger years of Einstein’s life, whic
Brownian MotionBrownian Motion Brownian motion was first observed by Dr Robert Brown in 1827, using pollen grains. It was not explained correctly until much later. Albert Einstein set about explaining Brownian motion in 1905. Dr Robert Brown was a biologist and was studying pollen grains under a microscope. He noticed that the tiny grains were constantly moving and jigging around. He explained this by saying that, since pollen grains are from plants and plants are alive, then these grains must also be alive an
Robert BoyleRobert Boyle The English scene of the seventeenth century is a particularly rich one with regard to its contributions to the scientific revolution. The discovery and development of America moved Britain from the edge of the civilized world into the center of the new world, in which the sciences were to play a major role. During this period, in the field of chemistry, theories which offered direct opposition to Aristotelian natural philosophy and Paracelsian principles were rapidly disseminating.
Albert EinsteinAlbert Einstein Devin Cuevas Armendariz 8-7 My report will be about Albert Einstein and what his life was about. Also what kinds of theories he thought about. Albert Einstein lived between the years of (1879-1905). His life began when he was born in Prinstone, New Jersey in 1879, March 14. Albert Einstein was born with bright brown eyes, round cheeks, and a little bit of black hair. Albert Einstein started school when he was five years-old. Albert Einstein was Jewish, but still went to a Catholi
Werner Heisenberg and the Heisenberg Uncertainty PWerner Heisenberg and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Werner Heisenberg, born in the dawn of the twentieth century became one of its greatest physicists; he is also among its most controversial. While still in his early twenties, he was among the handful of bright, young men who created quantum mechanics, the basic physics of the atom, and he became a leader of nuclear physics and elementary particle research. He is best known for his uncertainty principle, a component of the so-called Cope
The Superstring TheoryThe Superstring Theory Abstract: The Superstring theory is quite possibly one of the leading Theories of Everything. Meaning that, it proven, it would postulate all of physics in one equation. The history of Superstrings and the conditions that brought it forth are viewed as wells as the impending implications of this discovery. Notice: This research paper approaches the subject of Superstrings from a quantitative viewpoint due to the lack of breadth of mind (of the author). Meaning, the autho
Materialism Materialism Materialism Â– Breaking the Spell Â“The ontology of materialism rested on the illusion that the kind of existence, the direct Â‘actualityÂ’ of the world around us, can be extrapolated into the atomic range.Â”Â (Werner Heisenberg) To the enlightened elite it is unthinkable to cede any limit to human understanding. If some poor fellow should suggest the incomprehensibility of the universe absent a Â“higher power,Â” heÂ’ll quickly find himself banished from polite society, charged wit