Animal Farm By George Orwell

The political satire Animal Farm was a novel written by George Orwell in 1945. The story takes place on Manor Farm, a farm lying in England in the mid-twentieth century. One day it is taken over by its farm animals and therefore renamed Animal Farm.
Since George Orwell was also a political commentator for several newspapers, this book is not only a book to entertain but a satire and a critique which reflects persons and events from the Russian Revolution.

Old Major assembled all animals of Manor Farm together after their master and owner Mr. Jones had gone to bed, and he was not a human military officer, but an old Middle White pig. He was telling the animals about a dream he already had when he was a young pig. In his address he stated that all mankind is evil and therefore every animal had to hold together to overthrow the human race one day. The old boar couldn\'t tell the exact time when the revolution would take place, but he promised that it would happen one day. At the end of his speech he taught all animals the song called "Beasts of England", a song pointing out his believes, and the tune was picked up by the animals who were starting to sing it immediately.
This song included the essence of Old Major\'s teachings. Some details were:

"[...] Soon or late the day is coming,
Tyrant Man shall be o\'erthrown,
And the fruitful fields of England
Shall be trod by beasts alone.
[...]
For that day we all must labour,
Though we die before it break;
Cows and horses, geese and turkeys,
All must toil for freedom\'s sake[...]."

Old Major could be compared with Karl Marx, the father of communism, since the teachings of both Old Major and Karl Marx contain the same ideas and beliefs, that the labor class will overtake and everything will be shared equally afterwards. Three days after telling the animals about the Rebellion Old Major died, and it became the task of the pigs who were the smarter animals on the farm to develop Old Major\'s teachings from there on. There had been three pre-eminent pigs: Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer. Snowball was an excellent speaker, but Napoleon was considered to have a greater depth in character. Squealer, however, was a gifted talker who was always able to persuade anyone, as he was twisting other opinions around and made others believe what he wanted them to believe. So it became the pigs\' duty to prepare the other animals for the Rebellion.

The Rebellion came one day, sooner than everybody would have thought. Mr. Jones came home drunken and went to bed without feeding the animals. At last one of the cows could not bear it longer and broke the door of the shed, awakening Mr. Jones. He came into the shed an instant later with four other men, all with whips in their hands. That was enough for the animals to tolerate and without any command they started to attack their master and chased him away from Manor Farm. The animals\' action was not planned but successful and easier than they expected it to be and so they were astonished as they could see the farm was in their own hands now. The pigs worked out Old Major\'s dogmas into a system which they called Animalism and simplified it to Seven Commandments. These Commandments were written on a wall and ran:

1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
3. No animal shall wear clothes.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
6. No animal shall kill other animals.
7. All animals are equal.


The farm was renamed into Animal Farm and the work went on. The pigs started trying to educate all animals but animals like the hard-working Boxer have not been too successful in learning the alphabet since he could not get beyond the letter D. Other animals could not even understand the teachings of Animalism so it was reduced into "Four legs good, two legs bad". The work was still sometimes hard for the animals, but they had the biggest harvest ever and finished it in a shorter time than Mr. Jones\' time, not to