This essay Analytical Chemistry has a total of 1046 words and 6 pages.
Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry principally concerned
with determining the chemical composition of materials, which may be solids,
liquids, gases, pure elements, compounds, or complex mixtures. In addition,
chemical analysis can characterize materials but determining their molecular
structures and measuring such physical properties as pH, color, and solubility.
Wet analysis involves the studying of substances that have been submerged in a
solution and microanalysis uses substances in very small amounts.
Qualitative chemical analysis is used to detect and identify one or more
constituents of a sample. This process involves a wide variety of tests.
Ideally, the tests should be simple, direct, and easily performed with available
instruments and chemicals. Test results may be an instrument reading, and
observation of a physical property, or a chemical reaction. Reactions used in
qualitative analysis may attempt to cause a characteristic color, odor,
precipitate, or gas appear. Identification of an unknown substance is
accomplished when a known one is found with identical properties. If none is
found, the uknown substance must be a newly identified chemical. Tests should
not use up excessive amounts of a material to be identified. Most chemical
methods of qualitative analysis require a very small amount of the sample.
Advance instrumental techniques often use less than one millionth of a gram. An
example of this is mass spectrometry.
Quantitative chemical analysis is used to determine the amounts of
constituents. Most work in analytical chemistry is quantitative. It is also
the most difficult. In principle the analysis is simple. One measures the
amount of sample. In practice, however, the analysis is often complicated by
interferences among sample constituents and chemical separations are necessary
to isolate tthe analyte or remove interfering constituents.
The choice of method depends on a number of factors: Speed, Cost,
Accuracy, Convenience, Available equipment, Number of samples, Size of sample,
Nature of sample, and Expected concentration. Because these factors are
interrelated any final choice of analytical method involves compromises and it
is impossible to specify a single best method to carry out a given analysis in
all laboratories under all conditions. Since analyses are carried out under
small amounts one must be careful when dealing with heterogeneous materials.
Carefullly designed sampling techniques must be used to obtan representative
Preparing solid samples for analysis usually involves grinding to reduce
particle size and ensure homogeneity and drying. Solid samples are weighed
using an accurate analytical balance. Liquid or gaseous samples are measureed
by volume using accurately calibrated glassware or flowmeters. Many, but not
all, analyses are carried out on solutions of the sample. Solid samples that
are insoluble in water must be treated chemically to dissolve them without any
loss of analyte. Dissolving intractable substances such as ores, plastics, or
animal tisure is sometimes extremely difficult and time consuming.
A most demanding step in many analytical procedures is isolating the
analyte or separating from it those sample constituents that otherwise would
interfere with its measurement. Most of the chemical and physical properties on
which the final measurement rests are not specific. Consequently, a variety of
separation methods have been developed to cope with the interference problem.
Some common separation methods are precipitation, distillation, extraction into
an immiscible solvent, and various chromatography procedures. Loss of analyte
during separation procedures must be guarded against. The purpose of all
earlier steps in an analysis is to make the final measurement a true indication
of the quantity of analyte in the sample. Many types of final measurement are
possible, including gravimetric and volumetric analysis. Modern analysis uses
sophisticated instruments to measure a wide variety of optical, electrochemical,
and other physical properties of the analyte.
Methods of chemical analysis are frequently classified as classical and
instrumental, depending on the techniques and equipment used. Many of the
methods currently used are of relatively recent origin and employ sophisticated
instruments to measure physical properties of molecules, atoms, and ions. Such
instruments have been made possible by spectacular advances in electronics,
including computer and microprocessor development. Instrumental measurements
can sometimes be carried out without separating the constituents of interest
from the rest of the sample, but often the instrumental measurement is the final
step following separation of the samples\'s components, frequently by means of
one or another type of chromatography.
One of the best instrumental method is various types of spectroscopy.
All materials absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation to varying extents,
depending of their electronic structure. Therefore, studies of the
electromagnetic spectrum of a material yield scientific information. Many
spectroscopic methods are based upon the exposure of a sample substance to
electromagnetic radiation. Measurements are then made of how the intensity of
radiation absorbed, emitted, or scattered by the sample changes as a function
Topics Related to Analytical Chemistry
Analytical chemistry, Chemical pathology, Mass spectrometry, Chromatography, Titration, Analytical technique, Atomic emission spectroscopy, Sample preparation in mass spectrometry
Essays Related to Analytical Chemistry
Benjamin Franklin - Scientist And InventorBenjamin Franklin - Scientist And Inventor Benjamin Franklin has influenced American technology, and indirectly, lifestyles by using his proficiencies and intelligence to conduct numerous experiments, arrive at theories, and produce several inventions. Franklin\'s scientific and analytical mind enabled him to generate many long lasting achievements which contributed to the development and refinement of modern technology. Few national heroes, including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, play
Chemistry: Acid-Base TitrationChemistry: Acid-Base Titration Purpose: The objective of this experiment were: a) to review the concept of simple acid-base reactions; b) to review the stoichiometric calculations involved in chemical reactions; c) to review the basic lab procedure of a titration and introduce the student to the concept of a primary standard and the process of standardization; d) to review the calculations involving chemical solutions; e) to help the student improve his/her lab technique. Theory: Titration was u
Analytical ChemistryAnalyticalChemistryAnalyticalChemistry is the branch of chemistry principally concerned with determining the chemical composition of materials, which may be solids, liquids, gases, pure elements, compounds, or complex mixtures. In addition, chemical analysis can characterize materials but determining their molecular structures and measuring such physical properties as pH, color, and solubility. Wet analysis involves the studying of substances that have been submerged in a solution and microan
A ChemistA Chemist Becoming a chemist takes a lot of hard work and discipline. One very importan aspect of being a chemist is English, Comunication is of the utter most importance (Murphy). As well as having good communication skills, you also need a lot of patience. However, there are many other qualities you will need such as an excellent learning ability and mathematical skills. You will also need to be able to preceive concepts or objects. Once you get into college you need to know what kind of degre
Mechanical EngineeringMechanical Engineering : Mechanical Engineering The day to day duties of a mechanical engineer are at first repetitive, but over time and with advancement work varies. The average mechanical engineer works anywhere from thirty-five to fifty hours a week. If the engineer is ahead of schedule the hours may be less. Depending on which type of engineer you want be, you will either wear a uniform or semiformal clothing. Usually mechanical engineers work in an office or at a desk, their clothes are se
ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH An abbreviation is a shorter way to write a word or phrase. People use abbreviations for words that they write a lot. The English language often uses the apostrophe mark \' to show that a word is written in a shorter way, but some abbreviations do not use this mark. Some abbreviations use the period mark, especially the ones that come from the Latin language. Some examples of common English abbreviations are don\'t for do not , shouldn\'t for should not , etc. for et cet
Isiah M. WarnerIsiah M. Warner Isiah M. Warner was born in DeQuincy, Louisiana on July 20, 1946. At the age of two, he moved to Bunkie, Louisiana and attended Carver Elementary. His interest in science developed when he orally sampled kerosene to determine why it had an odd smell and was able to produce light. At the age of twelve, he received his first chemistry set. Upon entering Carver high school, Isiah enrolled in every science class available. He graduated valedictorian in June of 1964. During the summer
Chemistry Experiment #2: Graphical Data AnalysisChemistry Experiment #2: Graphical Data Analysis 09-01-04 Section 30 This laboratory experiment looks at the mass and diameter of seven steel ball bearings, using a vernier caliper to determine diameter, and an electronic analytical balance to determine mass. Graphical data analysis then allows us to observe the relationships between mass and diameter and to obtain a trendline in order to determine the diameter of an unknown ball bearing. Section I Data Table 1: Mass and Diameter (D) of Ball Bea
Benjamin Franklin-Scientist and InventorBenjamin Franklin-Scientist and Inventor American Studies May 20, 1996 Benjamin Franklin has influenced American technology, and indirectly, lifestyles by using his proficiencies and intelligence to conduct numerous experiments, arrive at theories, and produce several inventions. Franklin\'s scientific and analytical mind enabled him to generate many long lasting achievements which contributed to the development and refinement of modern technology. Few national heroes, including George Washingto
Analytical ChemistryAnalyticalChemistry -Analysis -determination of quality and quantity of a sample -steps of chemical analysis -determine objective -determine a method -acquire sample -sample preparation -quantitation (experiment) -interpretation of results -evaluation of error -Errors -determinate errors -affect accuracy -can be constant or proportional -are controllable (errors in procedure) -lead to differences between the obtained results and the truth -detection of constant error -compare to a norm value -s
ChemistChemist The career that I have chosen for my report and that I may choose to pursue, is that of a chemist. Chemists spend their time studying and experimenting with chemicals of different varieties. This is what is known as chemistry. Five subdivisions, or branches, are used to classify the various aspects of chemistry. These five are Biochemistry, Physical Chemistry, Geochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry, and AnalyticalChemistry. The two school subjects most relevant to chemistry are Mathematics and
Chemistry - Unit 2.Chemistry - Unit 2. Structures and bonding. Compounds- substances in which 2 or more elements are chemically combined. Chemical bonding involves either TRANSFERRING (ionic) of electrons, or the SHARING (covalent) of electrons on the highest energy level to achieve the electronic structure of a NOBLE GAS. In ionic bonding, ions are formed. Ions have the electronic structure of a NOBLE GAS. Ions - Atoms which have lost or gained electron/electrons. Group 1 - ALKALI METALS They react with non-meta
Computer EngineeringComputer Engineering Throughout todayís society there is no way that you could accurately say technology has not, and will not, influence us anymore. Current technology is moving at such a faster pace, that it is incredible what sorts of things we have. So whom do we give all of the credit to? Who or whom was it that was and is moving technology forward? Well, believe it or not, itís the engineersí job, not seclusively, but in general. Their career is based on finding, building, researching, cre