American History Timeline

I. The Prohibition "Experiment"
A. Eighteenth Amendment
1. Abolished alcohol
2. Popularity
a) Popular- Midwest and South
b) Unpopular- East
B. Prohibitionists
1. Naive
2. Hostile
C. Questionable Conditions
1. Many wanted to violate law just to violate it
2. Wanted a repeal
3. Speakeasies were constructed to drink in without being caught
D. Home brew & Bathtub Gin
1. became increasingly popular
2. less liquor was consumed in the days before the amendment
II. The Golden Age of Gangsterism
A. Crimes
1. Many caused by the prohibition
2. Gang wars
a) between rivals seeking to corner the rich market in booze
b) tried to erase "bootlegging" competitors
B. Chicago in the 20\'s
1. 500 low characters were murdered
2. convictions and arrests were few
C. Al Capone
1. Murderous alcohol distributor in 1925
2. began 6 years of gang warfare
D. Further Gang relations
1. Valentines Day massacre of 1929
2. Capone released after an 11 year sentence
3. Other illicit activities
a) Prostitution
b) Gambling
c) Narcotics
E. Organized crime
1. Became increasingly popular
2. By 1930 the annual "pay" was $12 to $18 billion
III. Monkey Business in Tennessee
A. Education in the 20\'s
1. Laws changed
a) More states required schooling until graduation
b) 17 year olds graduating doubled in the 20\'s to more than 1 in 4
2. John Dewey
a) Philosopher from Columbia University
b) set principles of learning
B. Science
1. Fundamentalists opposed
a) Teaching of Darwinian evolution destroyed Bible teachings
b) 3 southern states outlawed Darwin teaching
2. Evangelical religion was still robust in south
C. Monkey Trial
1. John Scopes was indicted for teaching Darwin\'s theory
2. William Jennings Bryan joined the prosecution against Scopes
3. Bryan was made to look foolish in the trial
4. Scopes was found guilty and charged $100
IV. The Mass-Consumption Economy
A. New Industries
1. electrical power supply
2. Automobiles
B. Advertising
1. Bruce Barton - founder of this profession
2. Became big in 20\'s
C. Sports
1. Started becoming a big business
2. Baseball and Boxing
D. Credit
1. Buying on credit became popular postwar
2. Created a huge debt for the nation
V. Putting America on Rubber Tires
A. Automobile Era
1. Henry Ford and Ransom Olds developed the industry
a) By 1910 there were 69 companies
b) Annual production of 181,000 units
2. Detroit - motorcar capital of America
B. Assembly line
1. Applied by Henry Ford
2. Took many failures before it was right
C. Auto Industry
1. 500,000th Model T was produced in 1914
2. By mid-20\'s Ford Roadster sold for $260
3. By 1930, total had risen to 20 million
VI. The Advent of the Gasoline Age
A. Auto Age impacted industries
1. Thousands of new jobs became available
2. Petroleum business
a) New oil derricks shot up
b) Once wilderness frontier became industrial frontier
B. Speedy marketing was accelerated
C. First hard-surfaced roadways were constructed
D. Automobiles became a necessity
E. Busses became more available
F. Accidents
1. Hundreds of thousands were injured and crippled
2. 1 millionth American died in a auto accident in 1951
VII. Humans Develop Wings
A. Air Craft
1. Wright Bros. Perfected
2. Kitty Hawk flight Dec, 17, 1903
B Aviation shrunk the world
1. stunt fliers
2. successful in wars
3. passenger airlines opened
C. Lindbergh
1. 1927, first solo west-east conquest of Atlantic
2. Awarded $25,000 took 34 hrs from NY to Paris
D. New Industry
1. many accidents
2. highways were overcrowded so many took to the air
VIII. The Radio Revolution
A. Voice carrying radio
1. Harding Landslide news was broadcast in Nov. 1920
2. Commercials interrupted radio programs
B. Added richness to American life
1. Families listened to programs together
2. Contributed to education and culture
IX. Hollywood\'s Filmland Fantasies
A. Birth of Movies
1. Occurred in 1903 w/ The Great Train Robbery
2. Hollywood
a) movie capital of the world
b) early producers did not censor nudity
3. WWI
a) Real birth of movies
b) used for anti German propaganda
4. "Talkies"
a) 1927- The Jazz Singer - first w/ sound
b) color movies began being produced
5. Critics gave opinions on movies and radio
IX. The Dynamic Decade
A. Urbanization
1. 1920 census- more Americans lived in cities
2. City employment for both men and women was easier to find
B. Movements
1. Birth-control movement - led by Margaret Saner
2. Equal Rights Amendment
C. Churches
1. Fundamentalists
a) against automobiles and most movies
b) made their own wholesome movies
2. Promoted Christian worship
D. Sexuality in Advertising
1. "Flappers" promoted products
2. Shorter skirts, shorter hair, make-up all more common
E. Racial Pride
1. Grew among Black community
2. Harlem was one of the largest black communities of the world
3. Langston Hughes
a) black poet
b) first verses in Weary Blues
4. UNIA founded
X. Literary Liberation
A. Post-war literature
1. New generation of writers
2. New codes of morals and expression established
B. Writers
1. H.L. Mencken
2. F. Scott Fitzgerald
a) This Side of Paradise published in 1920
b) The Great Gatsby (1925)
3. Ernest Hemingway
a) The Sun Also Rises (1926)
b) A Farewell to Arms (1929)
4. William Faulkner
a) War novel Soldier\'s Pay (1926)
b) The Sound and the Fury (1929) As I Lay Dying (1930)
1) history-rich
2) powerful
C. New art forms
1. Poetry
2. Music
3. Architecture
4. Drama
A. Benefits for Americans
1. incomes and living standards rose
2. everything appeared to be "fantastic"
B. Threats of a crash
1. several hundred banks failed annually
2. many homes were bought in Florida, then lost in a hurricane
3. speculation was running wild in the stock market
4. gambling on the market became a big, greedy game
C. Purchase of Stocks
1. bought them "on margin"...small down payment
2. barbers, stenographers, and elevator operators were given "hot
3. Americans began to worship the ticker-tape machine
4. some speculated that big profits would not last forever
D. Washington
1. little was done
2. In 1921, the national debt was $23, 976, 250, 608
3. Republican congress created the Bureau of the Budget
a. assisted the President in preparing estimates
b. submitted to congress as the annual budget
4. Taxes
1. many left from war debt
2. Mellionites
a. argued that high taxes forced the rich to invest