American Composers

Ch.12 Paul Whiteman(1890-1967)= a classically trained violinist and violist who adored jazz but lacked the gift to emulate the uninhibited improvisations of the jazz musicians he admired, formed a dance band in the early twenties that played jazzy arrangements of popular and even classical melodies. Blues = a black vocal folk music, began as vocal (largely instrumental). Classical blues = based on 3 lines of text. Wild wame don’t do the blues. Urban Blues = blues pieces written for publication and professional performance. W.C. Handy = father of the blues. Boggie woogie = arrived from blues (a popular piano style with the form and harmony of the blues, but a faster tempo and a dance beat. Jelly morton = blues pianst. Combo = small instrumental ( jazz band ) a small jazz ensemble. History of jazz = from new Oreans to chicago. Louis Armstrong =(1900-1971) violent childhood in New Orleans, became gentle, he played the cornet, and then formed his own band, and moved to the trumpet. Dixieland jazz = a white imitation of New Orleans jazz, introduced in Chicago; faster, more intense than New Orleans jazz. Sweet jazz = music with the sound and flavor of jazz, but arranged so that playing it requires little improvisation. (by Paul Whiteman, ) Rphosedy in Blue = by George Groshen (composer). (No propisation) =(sweet jazz) Harlem = in New York (jam) section (session). ==a black neighborhood in uptown new york city that became an important center for jazz. In 30’s development of (swing) big bands. Saxaphones, and clarenits, which were very important, (reed, instruments. Wood inst.) Swing = a term with many meanings, including (a) a mood of lilting spontaneity, (b) a danceable music played by the big bands in the thirties and forties. Benny Goodman(1909-1986) = king of swing. Brought big band music to national attention through his many recordings and radio programs. Count Basie(1904-1984) = was a pianist. Who defined jazz as “music you can pat your foot to”, became one of the most popular of all big band arrangers and leaders. (leader of band in kansas City jazz. Bessie Smith = (1894-1937) most famous of all urban blues singers and surely one whose records earned the most money for their recording company. Jam = to improvise together informally. Ragtime Piano = stride piano= a jazz piano style in which the left hand alternates low bass notes (on one and three) with mid-range chords (on two and four). Cadenza = solo passage. (were orchestra stops, and a solo sings.) Ch.13 Jazz = in 1940’s a new generation of young Americans (big band music). Beebop = a complex, highly improvised jazz style, largely developed by Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Charle Parker “Bird”(1920-1955) saxophone virtuoso, style of jazz. But he also introduced new rhythmic, melodic, and improvisational techniques that lifted jazz to a different plane. Walking bass = a steadily moving pattern in the plucked string bass that has melodic as well as rhythmic implications. Dave Brubeck = (b.1910) was in the forefront of progressive jazz on the West Coast, where performances.(pianist and composer) who played with Dixieland and swing bands as a youngster. Unusual rythimic patterns (known for unusaul meters) also known for (take five) his song. Duke Ellington(1899-1974) pianist, composer, arranger, and “loved band”. 3rd stream music = as coined by Gunther Schuller, the term refers to the combination, but not the blending, of jazz and classical music. Miles Davis = (1926-1991) virtuoso trumpet player, Davis was also an outstanding bandleader, composer, and innovator, who continued throughout his life to experiment with creative ideas in jazz.(he was involved cool jazz). Riff = a repeated rhythmic pattern that provides unity in jazz composition . Ella Fitzgerald = to sing scat. Bitonality = two keys at the same time.
Ch. 14. Revue = costumed show with no integerated plot. A series of scenes united by a theme but without a plot. (bunch of songs). Operetta or light opera = a form of music theater in which the music and dancing are closely integrated with the plot.(show boat) example. Ziegfeld Follies = Elegant revues produced by Florenz Ziegfeld nearly every year from 1907 to 1932.(written by people from Europe). American operettas = musical shows adapted from the Viennese style, written for the Broadway stage.