This essay Acid Rain has a total of 2328 words and 10 pages.
Acid rain forms when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with moisture
in the atmosphere to produce rain, snow, or another kind of precipitation. This
kind of pollution may also be suspended in fog or deposited in a dry form. Acid
rain is most common in North America and Europe. Acid rain has also been
detected in other areas of the world such as tropical rain forests of Africa.
Canada has placed limitations on the sulfur emissions. The United States has
not, so the emissions may still drift into Canada.
The acid rain cycle begins with hundreds of power plants burning
millions of tons of coal. Burning coal produces electricity for us. Coal is
made of carbon, but the coal that we mine is not pure carbon. It is mixed with
other minerals. Two of these are sulfur and nitrogen. Then the coal is burned
some of the sulfur changes into sulfur dioxide and nitrogen changes into
nitrogen oxide. These escape in to the air as poisonous gases. Some smokestacks
release chemicals like mercury, arsenic, and aluminum. Some of these minerals
are changed in to gases and others become tiny specks of ash. As these
chemicals drift, they may change again. They may react with other chemicals in
the air. When sulfur dioxide combines with water, the result is sulfuric acid.
When nitrogen oxide gas combines with water, the result is also another acid.
When the clouds releases rain or other precipitation, the acid goes with it.
This is called acid rain.
The level of acid is measured in pH levels. The pH scale begins at 0
and ends with 14. A reading lower than 7 is called acidic, and a reading higher
than 7 is called basic. Seven is neutral. Normal rain is slightly acidic with a
pH level of about 6.5. Rain with a pH of 5.5 is then times more acidic than
normal rain and rain with pH of 4.5 is a hundred times more acidic than normal
rain. In parts of the country, rain with pH levels of 4.5 to 5.0 is common.
An English scientist named Robert Angus Smith discovered acid rain in
1872, but no other scientist continued this study. Then in 1961 the Sweden
wanted to know why the fish in their lakes were dying. Svante Odén discovered
that the reason was acid rain. After Odén\'s discovery, other scientist began to
study acid rain too.
Acid rain has destroyed plant and animal life in lakes, damaged forests
and crops. It has also endangered marine life in coastal waters, eroded
structures, and contaminated drinking water. It can kill fish, frogs, and
insects in lakes. Acid rain can also be harmful to humans. It can hurt their
lungs and make it harder for them to breath. Acid fog can be particularly
harmful to people with respiratory problems. Acid rain can corrode stones and
some metals. Higher acid levels can be dangerous to our drinking water. Some
water pipes are made of lead, and when the water is acidic, it can dissolve the
metal. Then the metals end up in the water we drink.
Acid Rain Legislation
Acid rain is a destructive force as a result of nature and man colliding.
It is formed through harmful industrial emissions combining with contents of
the earth\'s atmosphere; a dangerous combination. This prompted governments
throughout North America to take action. Many laws and regulations have been
implemented, yet the question still remains, "Should tougher legislation be
implemented to force industries to reduce acid rain emissions?"
To decide whether tougher legislation should be implemented, one must
first understand the details of what exactly acid rain is. Acid rain is a
result of mankind\'s carelessness. It travels a long one of the most efficient
biogeochemical cycles on earth, the Hydrologic Cycle. This allows acid rain to
distribute itself further away from it\'s source causing more than local problems.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is released by fossil fuels when they undergo combustion.
Power plants and other fossil fuel burning industrial areas release various
forms of nitrous oxides (Nox). These two chemical compounds combine with the
water in the atmosphere to form what is known as acid rain.
The main reason that has prompted legislation of industrial emissions
from governments is because of the negative effects they can have on the
environment. Acid rain is harmful to the environment because of it\'s low pH.
It can harm the biotic components of earth, and also the abiotic components.
It\'s high acidity degrades soil to the point where it cannot support any type of
DuPont An Investment AnalysisDuPont An Investment Analysis DuPont makes a variety of high-value products for industry today, including polymers, chemicals, fibers, and petroleum products...products for agriculture, electronics, transportation, apparel, food, aerospace, construction, and health care. DuPont serves customers in these and other industries every day, offering better things for better living as the company prepares to begin its third century of scientific, technological, commercial, and social achievement. DuPon
Kao CorporationKao Corporation Executive Summary In this project, I have chosen the Fast Moving Consumer Product industry as the topic of study. First of all we will take a brief look at how the industry started in the late 19th century as soap making companies and slowly evolving into some of the most successful multidomestic company of today. Following we will have insight on the industry’s prominent characteristics and highlight some of the major players. We will also get an idea of the attractiveness of th
DrugsDrugs TOBACCO Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. It is considered an addictive substance because it contains the chemical nicotine. The tobacco plant is believed to have originated in the Western Hemisphere. The cultivated species most often grown for North American and European tobacco products is Nicotine Tabacum. The leaves of the plant are prepared for smoking, chewing, or sniffing. In addition nicotine tobacco contains over
Environmental EngineeringEnvironmental Engineering Engineering is defined as the science based profession by which the physical forces of nature and the properties of matter are made useful to mankind in the form of structures, machines, and other products or processes at a reasonable cost of money and time. An engineer is a person trained or skilled in designing and planning the performance of such equipment as machines and structures and in supervising their performance. An Environmental (or sanitary) Engineer is conc
Organic Molecules ChallengeOrganic Molecules Challenge Silicon\'s Reign as King of Semiconductors There is a revolution fomenting in the semiconductor industry. It may take 30 years or more to reach perfection, but when it does the advance may be so great that today\'s computers will be little more than calculators compared to what will come after. The revolution is called molecular electronics, and its goal is to depose silicon as king of the computer chip and put carbon in its place. The perpetrators are a few clever ch
Becoming an Ecologist is an Exciting VentureBecoming an Ecologist is an Exciting Venture Because of the increasing changes in the environment, a career as an ecologist is an important venture, especially for an earth-science oriented person with a love for nature and animals. With the number of ecological disasters escalating every year there is an ever increasing need for ecologists and people trained in ecology. Along with these disasters there are hundreds of animals and plants that are disappearing off the planet everyday. There is al
The Application of Fractal Geometry to EcologyThe Application of Fractal Geometry to Ecology Principles of Ecology 310L Victoria Levin 7 December 1995 Abstract New insights into the natural world are just a few of the results from the use of fractal geometry. Examples from population and landscape ecology are used to illustrate the usefulness of fractal geometry to the field of ecology. The advent of the computer age played an important role in the development and acceptance of fractal geometry as a valid new discipline. New insights gained
ChloroflourocarbonsChloroflourocarbons Chloroflourocarbons were discovered in the 1920\'s by Thomas Midgley, an organic chemist at General Motors Corporation. He was looking for inert, non- toxic, non-flammable compounds with low boiling points that could be used as refrigerants. He found what he was looking for in the form of two compounds: dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) and trichloromonoflouromethane (CFC-11). In both compounds, different amounts of chlorine and fluorine are combined with methane, which is a c
The Chlorine Debate: How White Do You Want It?The Chlorine Debate: How White Do You Want It? Chlorine is one of the world\'s most widely used chemicals, the building element vital to almost every United States industry. We use chlorine and chlorine-based products whenever we drink a glass of water, buy food wrapped in plastic, purchase produce in the supermarket, pour bleach into a washing machine, have a prescription filled, print out a computer document like this one, or even drive a car. (Abelson 94) Chlorine, a member of the halogen (sa
OxygenOxygen Oxygen and its compounds play a key role in many of the important processes of life and industry. Oxygen in the biosphere is essential in the processes of respiration and metabolism, the means by which animals derive the energy needed to sustain life. Furthermore, oxygen is the most abundant element at the surface of the Earth. In combined form it is found in ores, earths, rocks, and gemstones, as well as in all living organisms. Oxygen is a gaseous chemical element in Group VA of the per
Photochemical SmogPhotochemical Smog Gifted Chemistry IB Alternative Assessment 1997 March 19 Historically, the term smog referred to a mixture of smoke and fog, hence the name smog. The industrial revolution has been the central cause for the increase in pollutants in the atmosphere over the last three centuries. Before 1950, the majority of this pollution was created from the burning of coal for energy generation, space heating, cooking, and transportation. Under the right conditions, the smoke and sulfur dioxi
The Role Catalysts In Chemical Reactions, Their ImThe Role Catalysts In Chemical Reactions, Their Importance In Industry, Problems and New Developments OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE SCHOOLS EXAMINATION BOARD. General Certificate Examination - Advanced Level Chemistry (Salters\') - Paper 3 mock. ROBERT TAYLOR U6JW. A Catalyst is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction. The catalyst remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. The process is called catalysis. In this report I aim going to explain the role of catalysts in chemical reactions and the
BiotechnologyBiotechnology Biotechnology: Its application in agriculture Introduction: Persuade public to become aware of the changes Persuade audience to think about where they stand on this very important issue and take action according to your decision. Labeling and careful regulation of genetically manufactured foods v Persuade the American Public to think about the following changes that are being made in Agriculture as a society wish should discuss the issue. v Control genetic technology, Persuade publ
Depletion Of The Ozone LayerDepletion Of The Ozone Layer The ozone layer diminishes more each year. As the area of polar ozone depletion (commonly called the ozone hole) gets larger, additional ultraviolet rays are allowed to pass through. These rays cause cancer, cataracts, and lowered immunity to diseases.1 What causes the depletion of the ozone layer? In 1970, Crutzen first showed that nitrogen oxides produced by decaying nitrous oxide from soil-borne microbes react catalytically with ozone hastening its depletion. His
Neutralizing Acids and BasesNeutralizing Acids and Bases The sought to determine the effects of mixing various levels of acids and bases to see which combination would have the most explosive reaction, and measure the resulting pH levels. I did this by testing an assortment of different pH levels of acids and bases, mixing them together and measuring the results. Most of the experiments resulted in a pH neutral solution, except for the Sulfuric Acid and the Sodium Hydroxide. By far, the Sulfuric Acid was the most explosive
Legalization of DrugsLegalization of Drugs Man, as a creature, is inherently bored. Since the dawn of time, it has been the natural instinct of man to find alternative methods to enhance his being. The many means by which man has turned to include sex, gambling, and the consumption of substances beyond the requirements of nutrition. The consumption of substances can be further broken down into legal and illegal substances. The question then becomes, who are we to place labels on certain substances by deeming them le
Why Drugs Should Be Legalized!!!!Why Drugs Should Be Legalized!!!! Man, as a creature, is inherently bored. Since the dawn of time, it has been the natural instinct of man to find alternative methods to enhance his being. The many means by which man has turned to include sex, gambling, and the consumption of substances beyond the requirements of nutrition. The consumption of substances can be further broken down into legal and illegal substances. The question then becomes, who are we to place labels on certain substances by dee
EstuariesEstuaries An estuary is a coastal area where fresh water from rivers and streams mixes with salt water from the ocean. Many bays, sounds, and lagoons along coasts are estuaries. Portions of rivers and streams connected to estuaries are also considered part of the estuary. The land area from which fresh water drains into the estuary is its watershed. Estuaries come in all shapes and sizes, each unique to their location and climate. Bays, sounds, marshes, swamps, inlets, and sloughs are all exampl
Faster Dissolved Oxygen Test KitFaster Dissolved Oxygen Test Kit Purpose The purpose of my project is to determine if there is any significant difference in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels as measured by the traditional HACH® method or the newly developed CHEMets® test kit under typical field conditions. Hypothesis My hypothesis is that there is no significant difference in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels as measured by the traditional HACH® method or the newly developed CHEMets® test kit under typical field conditions. Review of Li
Fossil Fuel Consumption, CO2 and Its Impact on GloFossil Fuel Consumption, CO2 and Its Impact on Global Climate Background: At the beginning of human history, we had to satisfy our energy needs (for food, heat and movement) by using our own muscle power and gathering or hunting naturally available plants, animals and wood. Each stage in the evolution of human society (the development of farming, domestication of animals, harnessing of wind and water power) increased the average per capita energy use, but it was the Industrial Revolution and the
John Muir's Trail in HistoryJohn Muir\'s Trail in History John Muir was a man of great importance in the history of the United States and in the preservation of it\'s beauty. His tireless efforts to protect natural wonders such as Yosemite Valley demonstrated his undying love for the outdoors. Muir took a stand against the destructive side of civilization in a dauntless battle to save America\'s forest lands. The trail of preservation that Muir left behind has given countless numbers of people the opportunity to experience
The Atmospheric Ozone LayerThe Atmospheric Ozone Layer The stratospheric ozone layer exists at altitudes between about 10 and 40km depending on latitude, just above the tropopause. Its existence is crucial for life on earth as we know it, because the ozone layer controls the absorption of a portion of the deadly ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. UV-A rays, including wavelengths between 320 and 400nm, are not affected by ozone. UV-C rays between 200 and 280nm, are absorbed by the other atmospheric constituents besides oz
Fossil Fuel Consumption, CO2 and its impact on GloFossil Fuel Consumption, CO2 and its impact on Global Climate Fossil Fuel Consumption, CO2 and its impact on Global Climate Background: At the beginning of human history, we had to satisfy our energy needs (for food, heat and movement) by using our own muscle power and gathering or hunting naturally available plants, animals and wood. Each stage in the evolution of human society (the development of farming, domestication of animals, harnessing of wind and water power) increased the average per c
Isiah M. WarnerIsiah M. Warner Isiah M. Warner was born in DeQuincy, Louisiana on July 20, 1946. At the age of two, he moved to Bunkie, Louisiana and attended Carver Elementary. His interest in science developed when he orally sampled kerosene to determine why it had an odd smell and was able to produce light. At the age of twelve, he received his first chemistry set. Upon entering Carver high school, Isiah enrolled in every science class available. He graduated valedictorian in June of 1964. During the summer
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) Predominantly Inattentiveness Introduction to Special Education Notes: o Even though the scientific term is ADHD there are some that refers to it as ADD with the different subtypes. o ADHD predominantly inattentiveness is still known by many people as ADD, even though that is not the right term. o In places where ADHD is mentioned alone in the paper, the research is about ADHD as a whole. Introduction Most of us have heard of the term Attention Defi
HDip Ed, Physics MethodologyHDip Ed, Physics Methodology FAO Re HDip Ed, Physics Methodology From Student No Question: Should practical workshops be an integral part of science methodology in the HDip? The question, as I see it, being asked here is whether or not trainee science teachers would benefit from a greater emphasis on lab and practical experience and training in the HDip course. I feel that this issue needs to be explored in context, therefore I will, briefly, look at the purpose and practice of experimental work
Is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalIs the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Effective? 11/24/03 Before, writing this paper I knew very little about the DSM. I know I learned about the DSM in the psychology 101 class I had but, all I could remember was a vague definition about it being a “diagnostic tool”. The only one thing I could truly remember about the DSM was a telephone conversation that I had with my mother a year earlier. At that time I had just changed my major from computer science (a field that my p
Acid RainAcid Rain INTRODUCTION: John F. Kennedy once said, “The supreme reality of our time is the vulnerability of our planet.” This vulnerability has never been so obvious as it is when we consider the devastating effect of acid rain. Acid rain destroys entire ecosystems and jeopardizes our health. The destructive power of this silent killer is evident to everyone who visits the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. The issue of acid rain is not just a local problem; the effect of acid rain on the e
Acid RainAcid Rain CONTENTS Summary 1. Introduction 1.1 Terms of reference 1.2 Source of information 2. What is Acid Rain? 2.1 The definition of Acid Rain 2.2 How to Measure Acid Rain? 3. What cause Acid Rain? 3.1 History of Acid rain 3.2 Causes of Acid rain 4. What Are Acid Rain\'s Effects? 4.1 Water 4.2 Soil 4.3 Plant 4.4 Atmosphere 5. What Society Can Do About Acid Deposition ? 5.1 Understand acid deposition\'s causes and effects 5.2 Clean up smokestacks and exhaust pipes 5.3 Use alternative energy so
The Plastic IndustryThe Plastic Industry Year 11 Chemistry Introduction Throughout these thousands of years, mankind have been using natural plastics. These plastics come from natural resins of nature. The use of plastics date back to when the Egyptians soaked burial wrappings in natural resins to help preserve their dead, and people had also used animals horns and shell for centuries to make spoons and combs. The development of plastics was invented in about 1860, when Phelan and Collander, a U.S. pool and billiar
Acid RainAcid Rain Scientists from around the globe have come to the conclusion that acid rain has to be regarded as a serious direct threat to our environment. This conclusion has been arrived upon from the study of concrete scientific evidence by way of the study of acid rain and its effects on the environment. Acid rain hurts both lakes and other bodies of water as well as vegetation. Many bodies of water are extremely sensitive to acid rain because they do not have the ability to neutralize it. Such
Gaia and Plate TectonicsGaia and Plate Tectonics Geologists and biologists have traditionally thought of life as having adapted to changes in the environmental conditions over time, but a new view of the earth derived from the Gaia theory has emerged. Many scientists now look at the entire earth as an organism, where living and nonliving matter evolve together maintaining an environment nearly ideal for life. The Gaia theory maintains that soon after the formation of life, and organisms began to change the environment,
PesticidesPesticides Today, we are more concerned with our environment than ever before. Similarly, it is my belief that we are more knowledgeable about our earth\'s environment than did previous generations. I do not believe it would be an understatement to say that the planet earth is in serious jeopardy--from the shrinking rain forests, to the polluting of the oceans and land, to the ozone layer problem. Nevertheless, for purposes of this discussion, it is my intent to focus on pesticides as one partic
OUR FOOD SYSTEMOUR FOOD SYSTEM Group1 1 After a long hard day of work you sit down in your comfortable recliner and open up your favorite snack. But when you reach into grab a piece, you pull out a dead bug. Suddenly many thoughts come into your mind, you wonder how did the bug get there and was it dead or alive. Is it harmful or carry a disease. You ask yourself did the bug come from the United States or another country and where was your snack made? As all these questions come into your head, you wonder who
DuPontsDuPonts DuPont is one of the oldest continuously operating industrial enterprises in the world. The company was established in 1802 near Wilmington, Delaware, by a French immigrant, Eleuthére Irénée du Pont de Nemours, to produce black powder. E. I. du Pont had been a student of Antoine Lavoisier, the father of modern chemistry, and he brought to America some new ideas about the manufacture of consistently reliable gun and blasting powder. His product ignited when it was supposed to, in a manner
RadonRadon In this paper I will discuss the element called Radon. I will explain how and when this element was discovered, its\' physical characteristics, the natural environment of the element and the abundance in which it occurs. In addition, I will describe why Radon is important to humans, and other interesting facts related to this element. Radon has the symbol Rn. Its atomic number is 86 and its atomic weight is 222. The shell configuration is 2,8,18,32,18,8. Radon\'s most stable isotope is Rn
PesticidesPesticides United States Prevention, Pesticides EPA-738-F-94-030 Environmental Protection And Toxic Substances September 1994 Agency (7508W) R.E.D. FACTS Limonene Pesticide Reregistration All pesticides sold or distributed in the United States must be registered by EPA, based on scientific studies showing that they can be used without posing unreasonable risks to people or the environment. Because of advances in scientific knowledge, the law requires that pesticides which were first registered y
Is Psychology a Science?Is Psychology a Science? In order to answer this question it is important to understand the definitions of both psychology and science. The word \'psychology\' comes from the Greek \'psyche\' (or soul) and \'logos\' (or study), which came to be known as the \'study of the soul\'. The American Heritage Dictionary defines psychology as: 1. the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes 2. the science of human and animal behavior. In its pure definition the dictionary has
The Metallurgy of Copper WireThe Metallurgy of Copper Wire Introduction Copper is the preferred and predominant choice in the electrical industry because of its high conductivity, both electrical and thermal. In order to obtain the required properties, unalloyed high purity copper is almost always used. This article discusses the rationale for this choice, and pays particular attention to the underlying metallurgical principles. It is intended to serve as a technical discussion of pertinent developments spanning the past se
Magic of the MindMagic of the Mind PART ONE CONTENTS --------------------3 SELFREALISATION AND DIRECTION FOR THE ADOLESCENT PART TWO CONTENTS ---------------------59 MANIFESTATIONS OF AWARENESS PART THREE CONTENTS -----------------104 PHILOSOPHICAL CONTENTS PART ONE. BOLD = MAIN TITLES. REGULAR = SUB TITLES. ----------------------------------------------------------------PAGE FORWARD -----------------------------------------------------4 INTELLECTUALITY -----------------------------------------8 DEDICATION -----
DuPont: An investment analysisDuPont: An investment analysis DuPont makes a variety of high-value products for industry today, including polymers, chemicals, fibers, and petroleum products...products for agriculture, electronics, transportation, apparel, food, aerospace, construction, and health care. DuPont serves customers in these and other industries every day, offering better things for better living as the company prepares to begin its third century of scientific, technological, commercial, and social achievement. Du
Chemistry - Unit 1Chemistry - Unit 1 Atoms All substances are made of atoms. Element - a substance that contains only one kind of atom. There are around 100 different elements. Groups contain elements with similar properties. left26987500 Name of particle Charge Proton +1 Neutron 0 Electron -1 Atoms of each element are represented by a chemical symbol e.g oxygen is O, sodium is Na. Atoms have a small nucleus, it is made of protons and neutrons, which are surrounded by electrons. All atoms of a particular element
HYPERLINK http://emergencyeducation.net/ Emergen HYPERLINK http://emergencyeducation.net/ Emergency Medicine Education Emergency Medicine Education Blog EM for Students Resources Clinical Cases An Approach to Trauma Â Major trauma is any traumatic injury which involves multiple body areas. The management of major trauma patients involves a systematic approach which starts with a primary survey to identify immediate life threats, and then proceeds to a secondary survey looking for additional injuries which are not life threatening. The fina