Abstract EXAMPLES





This paper describes an empirical life cycle model and uses it to predict the behavioral responses to a change in the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program known internally within the Social Security Administration as the “$1 for $2 benefit offset”. This policy has not been enacted yet, but has been actively supported by disability advocates as a way to provide greater incentives for SSDI benefi-ciaries who have fully or partially recovered from their disabilities to return to work. In contrast to the large predicted increase in return to work, the life-cycle model predicts that the $1 for $2 offset will not have a very significant induced entry effect. The number of SSDI applications increases by 2.2% in our simulations, and SSDI rolls increase by 3.2%.


Departmental users of financial software are anxious to embrace client/server packages with attractive GUIs and flexible features. A report points out that although the older mainframe systems are expensive to maintain, the client/server packages being offered to replace them often cannot meet the demands of a big corporation. Competitive demands result in suppliers releasing products too early, and using customers to test products. Many vendors are still trying to solve performance problems after the systems have been purchased and installed. On the other hand, those companies who cling to proprietary systems are suffering as end users demand Windows front ends and more features. A major reason for the demand for client/server is globalization, and the resulting need for flexible, all-encompassing software that can accommodate international operations. With older mainframe systems, although they may offer many features, access is often difficult and there is little emphasis on empowering end users.


M2 Presswire, Oct 27, Pna


IS INTEGRATION: IS Integration calls for improved ststandards in the testing of projects:


A typical example of testing going wrong can be highlighted by taking into account the Passport Office system fiasco. [1999,Pna]. The research that was undertaken after the passport system failed indicated that earlier testing could have avoided this particular disaster. This is why the IS Integration, who are a independent business solutions specialist.
81%, which is a high percent, say a different approach should have been used.


Ripley, ‘Testing is such an important aspect of all computer projects’.





Ripely thinks

















InformationWeek, Nov 20, 1995 n554 p220(1)


Why software is so hard. (difficulties of development process) (Industry Trend or Event)(Column) Fritz Trapnell.


‘The only purpose of testing is to remove bugs.’











Design News, Oct 20, 2003 v58 i16 p62(1)


Web-based lifecycle software: access product performance information. (Software/Hardware)


Nlighten helps reduce product lifecycle costs and predict more accurate and consistent ROI numbers.


Features include alerts to identify problems


quick access to historical data


design change monitoring.


Software Magazine, May 1998 v18 n7 Pa8(3). William Gannon Jr.


Is the quality quotient rising?


Gannon, Jr argues that early testing in the life cycle does not happen because the systems have become much more complex then before. He points out that from his experience quality assurance people often do not really understand what the users who are going to us the system really want from it.


[Gannon Jr, 1998, Pa8(3)


Computer Weekly, Feb 6, 1992 p26(2


55 ways to cut your budget. Clive Davidson


Software Development

‘Test early, test often’ [Davidson, 1992, p26].This is a well known and commonly used quotation, but however there is still a problem in getting this message through. Why is this?
One of the reasons is changing the way people work is not always straight forward it takes time to change someone’s habit of testing late. This is why it is important to encourage and put pressure on staff to test early as possible.


EDN, May 23, 1996 v41 n11 p89(6)





Kill bugs early with software-test tools. Richard A. Quinnell.


Software test-tools are recommended to be used early in the development stage they are suppose to help validate and verify the processes at unit and system integration levels. It is also suppose to help detect and correct software bugs. Too often software developers depend on testing intensively at the end of the life cycle. Where as the software tool encourages and allows developers to perform more detail and careful software testing to take place early in the life cycle.


[Quinnell, 1996, P89(6)].


Quinnell, believes test tools play a important part in helping staff test early as they help in testing software more then