This essay A Review Of Psychology Articles has a total of 4324 words and 19 pages.
A Review Of Psychology Articles
In this paper I will review four articles, one movie, and one experiment conducted in class. The issue\'s all this information covers is sex differences and the degree to which they exists in men and women and why they are present. There will be varying points of view for all these issues with each article having its own studies or theory \'s to support its beliefs. The method for presenting this information will first be summaries of the media gathered then a general discussion where I will draw my own conclusions about what I have read.
Sex and Gender (Deaux, 1985)
The purpose of this article was to come to solid conclusions about the issue of sex and gender differences. Deaux arrived at these conclusions through comprehensive review of studies conducted on the issue in the past. The criteria he used to review this information was he only used psychological literature, he ignored broad physiological data unless related to a specific behavior, and did not use clinical or therapeutic research. As well he only dealt in areas of sex differences where there was wide spread research and held the most promise to explain how sex and gender influenced behavior. In addition he only focussed his research on adult studies leaving adolescent studies for other scientist. I will handle the summary of this article by breaking it up into the same sub-topics Deaux did and writing summaries of what he found about each.
-Mathematical Ability: In this area he found that men tend to be able to do some specific mental tasks better, such tasks were metal rotation and tests the involved horizontally-vertically manipulating objects. He found no differences in spatial visualization that required more sequential and analytic strategy. As well there was evidence that training could alter performance for men or women.
-Verbal Ability: Finds that women may have better verbal ability, but this difference is weak at best.
-In general: Finds that over the past twenty years women have been making gains in cognitive skills relative to men, this caution\'s the belief that behavior differences are indeed biological.
Personality Traits and Disposition:
-Achievement: Finds that women score higher in work and men are significantly higher on both mastery and competition. Finds subjective task value is the better predictor of both male and female choices in achievement domains.
-Masculinity and Femininity: Finds that this area is very broad and any reliable empirical system for measuring these differences will probably not be possible.
-Moral Development: Finds that actual differences are small but men show violence imagery in response to affiliation themes where achievement situations are more likely to elicit violence imagery in women.
-Aggression: Finds that there is generally a 5% difference in males being more aggressive but in actuality it depends on the situation, weather attacking, defending or other variants. As well there is supportive evidence in the amount of aggressive crimes committed by men in comparison to women. As well Deaux notes that this difference seems to be biological in nature with differences noticed at the age of 6 and below.
-Conformity and Social Influence: Finds that women will more easily conform. There is 1% difference/variance in behaviors accounted for by sex.
-Non-verbal Behavior: found that women have superiority in both encoding and decoding non-verbal cues, although explained variance is relatively small. Encoding is particular marked in visual cues for women, as decoders of visual cue\'s women don\'t do as well.
-Meaningfulness of Difference: Finds that it is very hard to correlate all the studies because of all the variables involved, as well noted that bias is going to exists in investigators so it may be very hard to get any truly unbiased research making the conclusions they find less credible.
-Comparisons Of Laboratory and Field Studies: Finds that it is important to distinguish between the two and that some of the questions asked in one setting may not apply to the other, because of this it is always important to reference difference in the context of which they were found.
-Causes of Sex Difference: Finds that no one side of the nature/nurture argument wholly justifies sex difference and more research is starting to recognize this
Gender Belief Systems:
-Attitudes Towards Roles of Men and Women: Finds that attitudes of roles are changing, more so of women then men, finds attitudes
Topics Related to A Review Of Psychology Articles
Biology of gender, Gender studies, Sex, Gender, Sex differences in humans, Gender role, Aggression, Spatial visualization ability, Nonverbal communication, Sex and gender distinction, G factor, Sex differences in cognition
Essays Related to A Review Of Psychology Articles
Rights of Egyptian WomenRights of Egyptian Women Throughout written history, women have experienced status subservient to the men they lived with. Generally, most cultures known to modern historians followed a standard pattern of males assigned the role of protector and provider while women were assigned roles of domestic servitude. Scholars speculate endlessly at the cause: biology, religion, social custom. Nevertheless, the women were always subordinated to the men in their culture. Through their artwork, tomb inscri
Another Abortion PaperAnother Abortion Paper Birth Control or Legal Murder? Approximately 1.6 million murders are committed legally each year. With the exception of laws in few states, the mutilated bodies of the victims are thrown into dumpsters like pieces of rotten meat. While these victims lay waiting in the infested dumpsters to be hauled off to a landfill, the murderers are in their offices waiting for their next patient--the accomplice to the murder. This is the murder of an innocent child by a procedure known
Birth Control and AbortionBirth Control and Abortion ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- A paper I wrote for my Advanced Composition class in 1995. I am happy to say that I got an A+ on it!!!! The paper contains no religious reasons that abortion is wrong, though I believe with all my heart that God is saddened everyday by the millions of His children that are killed. I used just medical and scientific fact to prove my point. Enjoy! ------------------------------------------------
Dave Barry's Complete Guide To GuysDave Barry\'s Complete Guide To Guys Wait, are you telling me that Dave Barry\'s Complete Guide to Guys addresses women\'s issues? If women\'s issues include understanding why guys spit, scratch themselves, and give each other noogies, well then this book certainly addresses them! As for addressing the whole bit about a patriarchal world history, the subjugation of women, and accused responsibility for the Fall of Man, well, you might as well forget it. Dave Barry might not make you feel better
Computers: Nonverbal CommunicationsComputers: Nonverbal Communications CHAPTER 1: Rationale and Literature Review Magnafix says, Have you figured out the secret entrance to Kahn Draxen\'s castle? Newtrik sighs deeply. Newtrik says, I think so, but I haven\'t found the stone key yet! Magnafix grins mischievously. Magnafix gives a stone key to Newtrik. Newtrik smiles happily. Newtrik shakes hands with Magnafix. Newtrik says, Thanks! Magnafix grins broadly and says, No problem... Newtrik leaves west. Introduction Purpose The
Can Genetics Cause Crime?Can Genetics Cause Crime? Introduction to Criminal Justice System Dr. Mike Carlie Are genetic factors more likely to make one person perform violent acts? Many doctors and researchers in the field of genetics have searched for a answer to this question. During 1989-93 one such researcher named Dr. Sullivan found some interesting points about genetics and crime. Sullivan while working for the Bush administration’s secretary of health and human services during 1989-1993 was appalled by the epidemi
William Gibson and The InternetWilliam Gibson and The Internet Introduction The words Internet and world wide web are becoming everyday use these days, it has exploded into the mass market of information and advertising. There are bad points about the net as well as good points, this relatively new medium is growing at such a rate that the media have to take it seriously. This new form of communication was mainly populated by small groups of communities, but now that it is getting much easier to access the web these gro
An End To Genetic DiseasesAn End To Genetic Diseases The United States has a very diverse heritage. There is no American race. Americans are the blending of many cultures throughout many generations. With this blending of cultures comes a blending of genes. In the past, genes have not been well understood. They were not understood until Mendel did experiments on plants to find out why different plants of the same species had different characteristics. His goal was to find the key to unlock the mystery of inheritance (Cop
A Review Of Psychology ArticlesA Review Of Psychology Articles In this paper I will review four articles, one movie, and one experiment conducted in class. The issue\'s all this information covers is sex differences and the degree to which they exists in men and women and why they are present. There will be varying points of view for all these issues with each article having its own studies or theory \'s to support its beliefs. The method for presenting this information will first be summaries of the media gathered then a gen
AbortionAbortion Birth Control or Legal Murder?Approximately 1.6 million murders are committed legally each year. Withthe exception of laws in few states, the mutilated bodies of the victims arethrown into dumpsters like pieces of rotten meat. While these victims laywaiting in the infested dumpsters to be hauled off to a landfill, themurderers are in their offices waiting for their next patient--theaccomplice to the murder. This is the murder of an innocent child by aprocedure known as abortion. Abortio
AggressionAggression Aggression is a critical part of animal existence, which is an inherent driving force to humans, as we, too, are animals. The source of aggression within humans is a long summative list, but before trying to understand its source one must apply a working definition of aggression. Aggressive behavior is defined by Encyclopedia Britannica as any action of an animal that serves to injure an opponent or prey animal or to cause an opponent to retreat. (7) David G. Myers states that aggress
The Limitations Of Gender RolesThe Limitations Of Gender Roles The Limitations of Gender Roles Just how different are men and women? Everyone acknowledges that there are significant differences between males and females, even if they are only physical. Others see not only the physical but also the social, emotional and intellectual differences between male and female. Gender roles by definition are the social norms that dictate what is socially appropriate male and female behavior. In early American culture it was common for
The Influence of Green Groups on the Policy of theThe Influence of Green Groups on the Policy of the United States Abstract: This research examines the relationship between environmental groups and the policies of the United States. The United States political system has been historically anthropocen-tric, or human centered. Environmental groups have been attempting to change this to a biocentric or ecocentric viewpoint, which includes the rights of animals and the environment. These views are nature centered instead of human centered. This stu
Abortion: Birth Control or Legal Murder?Abortion: Birth Control or Legal Murder? Approximately 1.6 million murders are committed legally each year. With the exception of laws in few states, the mutilated bodies of the victims are thrown into dumpsters like pieces of rotten meat. While these victims lay waiting in the infested dumpsters to be hauled off to a landfill, the murderers are in their offices waiting for their next patient--the accomplice to the murder. This is the murder of an innocent child by a procedure known as abortion.
David Levinson: Seasons' of A Man's LifeDavid Levinson: Seasons\' of A Man\'s Life Introduction Background In May of 1977, Daniel Levinson constructed a model of the season\'s of a mans life. His developmental theory consists of universal stages or phases that extends from the infancy state to the elderly state. Most development theories, such as Freud\'s psychosexual development theory or Piaget\'s cognitive development theory, end in the adolescent stage of life. Levinson\'s stage theory is important because it goes beyond most theo
Nature / Nurture or Both !Nature / Nurture or Both ! The controversy over what determines who we are, whether it is Nature (heredity, our biological make up) or Nurture (our environment) is taking a new shape. Through the past decades, psychologists have developed different theories to explain the characteristics of human-beings; how we feel, think and behave. Usually, these theories were one directional in the nature / nurture question. Today, a new approach to deal with this question is emerging. This new approach find
The Ontology of Gay and Queer The Ontology of Gay and Queer Homosexuality: History, Politics, Ethics April /2001 Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………….. p. 2-4 Definitions and Genealogy of Homosexuality……………… p. 5- Genealogy of Ontology………………………………………. p. Coming Out of the Closet: Conversion and Inaugeration or Integration……….. p. Genetic Ontology, Social Artifice and Orientations………... p. Conclusion: The Sexual Tower of Babel and Politics of Ontology………………………………. p. -Introduction- In recent years, the gay commu
Communist ManifestoCommunist Manifesto Chapter 1 Summary: Bourgeois and Proletarians The Communist Manifesto begins with Marx\'s famous generalization that the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles (79). Marx describes these classes in terms of binary oppositions, with one party as oppressor, the other as oppressed. While human societies have traditionally been organized according to complex, multi-membered class hierarchies, the demise of feudalism effected by the French Revol
Feminist RevolutionFeminist Revolution In the latter half of this century while the New Right has managed to remain unified, organized and focused the Left’s major weakness has been that it has been anything but; in fact it is difficult to ascertain whether the Left hold any shared tenets. There seems to be the vague understanding that left-wing politics are associated with being pro-woman, pro-labor and anti-racist; however even these extremely general sentiments are often confused and mistakenly conflicted.1 Fem
Aristotle’s Ethics and Its Impact on WomenAristotle’s Ethics and Its Impact on Women 12/4/03 Aristotle deviates from the metaphysical views of previous philosophers, including his beloved teacher Plato, that state that the purpose of human life lays beyond this world. Instead of this doctrine, Aristotle argues that the purpose of human life lies only within this world. Because Aristotle held this belief, he argues that one must make the most out of his life. To do so one must live the best possible life. Aristotle believed that knowing
Gender DifferencesGender Differences Essay #2 Are gender differences biological or society influenced? This is one of the biggest questions that has baffled scientists since the begging of modern science. Is femininity and masculinity an innate trait, or are they shaped by society? We know the gender roles that are expected in Western society, but do other cultures expect the same? To make it possibel to discuss what differences betweent the sexes are based on physiology and what differences rest on cultural idea
Generalized anxiety disorderGeneralized anxiety disorder Young people with an anxiety disorder typically are so afraid, worried, or uneasy that they cannot function normally. Anxiety disorders can be long-lasting and interfere greatly with a child\'s life. If not treated early, anxiety disorders can lead to: missed school days or an inability to finish school; impaired relations with peers; low self-esteem; alcohol or other drug use; problems adjusting to work situations; and anxiety disorder in adulthood. There are a numb
Career versus motherhood – A biological and socialCareer versus motherhood – A biological and social dilemma Human Biology 5 Essay 2004 The developed world is experiencing the lowest birth rates and an increasing incidence of infertility. Research and discuss the biological and social causes of this phenomenon and the repercussions- emotional, physical, political and economic- that this is and will be having on the individual and the population as a whole. Are the governments reacting to this trend? What is the evidence? Should they interfere w
SILENCE IS GOLDEN-OR LEADENSILENCE IS GOLDEN-OR LEADEN When men use silence it is considered golden because though this ruse the men maintain the position of power. However when woman use the same behavior this is deemed a drain on their perceived power and therefore seems leaden to them, weight them down. One side of this double standard is shown in both Mirra Komarovsky\'s study Blue Collar Marriage and Jack Sattel\'s novel Fear of Flying. In both of these pieces the man\'s silence is seen as being dominant. Speaking of
LiteratureLiterature IMAGERY The term imagery has various applications. Generally, imagery includes all kinds of sense perception (not just visual pictures). In a more limited application, the term describes visible objects only. But the term is perhaps most commonly used to describe figurative language, which is as a theme in literature. An example is animal imagery in Othello When Iago tortures Othello with animal images of his wife\'s supposed infidelity, were they as prime as goats, as hot as monkeys
GENDER DISCRIMINATIONGENDER DISCRIMINATION What is discrimination? It is that anytime a distinction is made in favor of or against a person or thing on the basis of an unfavorable opinion formed beforehand. We have all heard examples of such treatment, and most of us have experienced it ourselves. Unfortunately, most of it occurs in the very places that should be above it, beginning in school and continuing into the workplace. In addition to age, gender is one of the universal dimensions on which status differences
TobaccoTobacco Daddy’s Little Girl: Torchbearer For Tobacco Study of Smoking Behavior: Predisposition, Prediction, and Consequences Abstract: The abatement of tobacco use was promising in the 70s and 80s. Teenagers were engaging in smoking in ever increasing less numbers. The 90’s came upon with numbers of adolescent users that increased as the years progressed. A record number demographic group has appeared through the smoke. An explosion of adolescent girls are accounting for this decade’s resurgence
FemalesFemales Females have come a long way since the early 1920s. They have slowly began to take a different approach to the male outlook of themselves. Many women today have found inner beauty as another \'boost\' of self confidence. However, in the early nineteen Sadly, men has had a tremendous amount of persuasion to contribute to this fact. As long as a woman had a pretty face, she would have a man to take care of her. This did little for real communication. I once read a literary about a woman na
AnthrolopoloyAnthrolopoloy BOOK REVIEW Scientific racism claims that biological inheritance determines the character and behavior of social groups we identify as races. Despite its history of oppression and genocide, the scientific defense of racial inequality demonstrates a disturbing persistence. Murphy Ballen’s study of scientific racism in Great Britain and the United States in the 1920s and 1930s appropriately deals not with its demise but with its retreat. Making extensive use of private correspondence
Johnson Behavioral System ModelJohnson Behavioral System Model In this paper, I am going to summarize the Johnson Behavioral System (JBS) Model (Johnson, 1980, 1990), explain the perspectives for nursing practice, and explore its applicability in nursing practice. First, I am going to talk a little about Dorothy E. Johnson the nurse that wrote the Model. Dorothy E. Johnson was born August 21, 1919, in Savannah, Georgia (Lobo, 1995). She received her A.A. from Armstrong Junior College in Savannah, Georgia, in 1938; her B.S.N.