Chlorophyll A. Chlorophyll belongs to the Plant Kingdom. Chlorophyll is not found in the Animal Kingdom. Chlorophyll is found inside of Chloroplasts, and Chloroplasts are found inside of plant cells. B. Chlorophyll is a pigment that makes plants green. It is important because it converts sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. C. Chlorophyll is found inside the chloroplast which is located near the cell wall. It is located here because the suns rays might not penetrate deep into the pl
Chromium Chromium is a very hard, brittle, gray metal, which is sometimes referred to as Siberian red lead. It does not rust easily and becomes shiny and bright when it is polished. The shiny trim on our automobile bumpers and door handles is usually electroplated chromium. Most chromium comes from something called chromite which is a mixture of chromium , iron, and oxygen. Chromite is a common rather ordinary black mineral that no one really noticed until more recent times. Nearly all the world
Collisions of Two Objects When two objects collide, their motions are changed as a result of the collision, as is shown when playing pool. There are several laws governing collisions, the principal one being the law of conservation of linear momentum, which says the total momentum of an isolated system is the table and the balls, and the law then implies that the total momentum of the balls just before they collide is the total momentum just after the collision. Therefore if the masses of two co
Comets A comet is generally considered to consist of a small, sharp nucleus embedded in a nebulous disk called the coma. American astronomer Fred L. Whipple proposed in 1949 that the nucleus, containing practically all the mass of the comet, is a “dirty snowball” conglomerate of ices and dust. Major proofs of the snowball theory rest on various data. For one, of the observed gases and meteoric particles that are ejected to provide the coma and tails of comets, most of the gases are fragmentary m
Autism: False Words and False Hope Steven Hajducko Prof. Sims MWF 10:00-11:00 29 November 1995 Autism is a childhood disease where the child is in a private world of their own. A description of an autistic child by her mother is: We start with an image---a tiny, golden child on hands and knees, circling round and round a spot on the floor in mysterious self- absorbed delight. She does not look up, though she is smiling and laughing; she does not call our attention to the mysterious object of her
The Cosmos: Creation Where is the universe from? Where is it going? How is it put together? How did it get to be this way. These are Big questions. Very easy to ask but almost impossible to answer. We want answers for philosophical reason having nothing to do with science. No one will get rich from discovering the structure of the universe unless they right a book about it. The area of science dealing with Big questions is called cosmology. The reason for it\'s study is found in the fact that: T
Radio Waves In the modern society, radio is the most widely used medium of broadcasting and electronic communication : it plays a major role in many areas such as public safety, industrial manufacturing, processing, agriculture, transportation, entertainment, national defense, space travel, overseas communication, news reporting and weather forecasting. In radio broadcasts, they use the radio waves which can be both microwaves and longer radio waves. These are transmitted in two ways: amplitude
Does Life Exist On Mars After the recent discovery of single-cell life forms from mars were discovered contained in meteorite that crashed to the earth 12 YEARS AGO. I have many doubts to believe that it is the case. There is still no proof after all these years that the sightings of flying sources moving across the sky at tremendous speeds do really exist in the first place. Many Photos and Videos are taken but with the amount that turn out to be forges, the possibility that one of them is real
Earthquakes Earthquakes have plagued our lives for as long as people have inhabited the earth. These dangerous acts of the earth have been the cause of many deaths in the past century. So what can be done about these violent eruptions that take place nearly with out warning? Predicting an earthquake until now has almost been technologically impossible. With improvements in technology, lives have been saved and many more will. All that remains is to research what takes place before, during, and a
Fiber Optics Assignment Many modern medical materials and equipment work on a principle which is beyond the capacity of human transducers. Comment and discuss the working principles of an endoscope, uteroscope or a rectoscope showing the illuminating path, the image path, transmission path and the liquid transfer or operating instrument ducts, showing the position of suitable valves. This will therefore explain how light travels through an optical fibre and show how such fibres are used in medic
The Geiger-Muller Tube In the Geiger-Muller tube, particles ionize gas atoms. The tube contains a gas at low pressure. At one end of the tube is a very thin ”window” through which charged particles or gamma rays pass. Inside the tube is a copper cylinder with a negative charge. A rigid wire with a positive charge runs down the center of this cylinder. The voltage across the wire and cylinder is kept just below the point at which a spontaneous discharge, or spark, occurs. When a charged particle
How Guns Work A gun is a weapon that uses the force of an explosive propellant to project a missile. Guns or firearms are classified by the diameter of the barrel opening. This is known as the calibre of the gun. Anything with a calibre up to and including . 60 calibre(0.6 inches) is known as a firearm. The precise origin of the gun is unknown, although they were in use by the early 14th century and were common place in Europe by mid-century. These early guns were nothing more than large calibre
The Space Shuttle The shuttle, a manned, multipurpose, orbital-launch space plane, was designed to carry payloads of up to about 30,000 kg (65,000 lb) and up to seven crew members and passengers. The upper part of the spacecraft, the orbiter stage, had a theoretical lifetime of perhaps 100 missions, and the winged orbiter could make unpowered landings on returning to earth. Because of the shuttle\'s designed flexibility and its planned use for satellite deployment and the rescue and repair of pr
Holograms Toss a pebble in a pond -see the ripples? Now drop two pebbles close together. Look at what happens when the two sets of waves combine -you get a new wave! When a crest and a trough meet, they cancel out and the water goes flat. When two crests meet, they produce one, bigger crest. When two troughs collide, they make a single, deeper trough. Believe it or not, you\'ve just found a key to understanding how a hologram works. But what do waves in a pond have to do with those amazing three
Ferm Life Cycle Introduction: This essay will discuss the fern life cycle as taught in biology lab. The essay will cover the basic process which we used to grow a fern. I will discuss the methods and the results of the lab exercise. Finally, I will discuss the evidence of the methods and results that were obtained . Methods and Results: To begin our experiment we obtained a petri dish from our lab instructor which contained fern spores and the food they needed to survive. We then look at the spo
How to Make Model Rocket Launchers Making a rocket launcher may not be easy but it is worth it. The first thing needed is the model rocket set. The set comes with the engine and all other parts to make the rocket. The instructions to make the rocket must be followed. After making the rocket, a three foot PVC tube and cap must be purchased at a piping store, such as Lowes. In the cap of the PVC tube a one- fourth inch hole must be drilled. Electrical wire, that can be found at any hardware store,
Sports: Balance and Stability Billy Moore Physics In sports balance and stability are used to increase performance of the athlete or the athletes equipment. In Racecar driving, balance is used to stabalize the racecar. The wheels are wide and extrude from the base of the car. This gives the car a wider support base which increases the stability. The race cars are flat and low to the ground. This moves the center of gravity lower which also increases the stability of the car. In foot ball you nee
Voltage: Ohm\'s Law and Kirchhoff\'s Rules ABSTRACT Ohm\'s Law and Kirchhoff\'s rules is fundamental for the understanding of dc circuit. This experiment proves and show how these rules can be applied to so simple dc circuits. INTRODUCTION In the theory of Ohm\'s Law, voltage is simply proportional to current as illustrated in the proportionality, V=RI. As shown in this relation, V represent voltage which is the potential difference across the two ends of a electrical conductor and between which
What Is Physics and What Are Its Uses? Physics, a branch of science, is traditionally defined as the study of matter, energy, and the relation between them. The interaction between matter and energy is found everywhere. In order for matter to move, it requires some form of energy. Sports show many good examples of the relationship between matter and energy. For instance, a pitcher requires energy to throw a baseball at the incredible speed and accuracy that is needed to keep the batter from usin
Internal Combustion Engines An internal-combustion engine is a heat engine that burns fuel and air inside a combustion chamber located within the engine proper. Simply stated, a heat engine is an engine that converts heat energy to mechanical energy. The internal- combustion engine should be distinguished from the external- combustion engine, for example, the steam engine and the Stirling engine, which burns fuel outside the prime mover, that is, the device that actually produces mechanical moti
The Laser Before we can learn about the laser we need to know a little bit about light (since that is what a laser is made of). Light from our sun, or from an electric bulb, is called white light. It is really a mixture of all the different colours of light. The colours range from violet, indigo, and blue, to green, yellow, orange, and red. These make up the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Light is made up of particles, called PHOTONS, which travel in waves. The difference in the c
Lasers and Their Uses We have all at some point in our lives used or seen someone use a laser. They are used in compact disc players for stereos or computers, laser surgery, laser printers, holography, cutting and borring metals, communication, bar-code scanners, etc. Over the past three decades\' lasers have become a tool used daily by many people and they have become very useful in scientific research. As you can see lasers are a very useful and important tool which is why I have chosen this t
Lenz\'s Law and Faraday\'s Law of Induction 1. With this definition of the flux being , we can now return to Faraday\'s investigations. He found that the magnitude of the emf produced depends on the rate at which the magnetic flux changes. Faraday found that if the flux through N loops of wire changes by an amount , during a time delta t, the average induced emf during this time is This fundamental result is known as Faraday\'s law of induction. The minus sign is placed there to remind us in whi
Georg Simon Ohm At the time Georg Simon Ohm was born not much was known about electricity, he was out to change this. Georg grew up in Bavaria which is why most information about Georg is in German. There is even a College named after him: Georg-Simon-Ohm Fachhochschule Nuernberg. To much dismay not a whole lot has been written about him. Usually you will find a paragraph of the summary of his life. I hope to change this flaw in the history books by telling you as much as I could find on his lif
The MOBOT Project: Longwood In modern engineering, a systematic approach is used in the design, operation, and construction of an object to reach a desired goal. The first step of the process employs what is commonly known as the scientific method. The next step involves forming an interdisciplinary team of specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines, but from other fields whose knowledge may be useful or even necessary to completing the project. This step doesn\'t apply to our
Fire Ants Fire ants have been in the United States for over sixty years, and almost every American that lives in or frequently visits the quarantined states which they inhabit has had an unpleasant run in with these troublesome critters. Inhabitants of the Southeast who have ever stood unwittingly atop a fire ant mound know that the insects are aptly named. When the ants sting it creates a sensation similar to scorching caused by a hot needle touching the skin momentarily (1. Tschinkel 474). Fir
The Luminescence of Black Light Black Light. What is it? It is a portion of the Ultra-Violet Spectrum that is invisible to our eyes. We can not distinguish it. However, when this radiation impinges on certain materials visible light is emitted and this is known as "fluorescence." Fluorescence is visible to the human eye, in that it makes an object appear to "glow in the dark." There are several sources of ultra-violet light. These sources are: the sun, carbon arcs, mercury arcs, and black lights
Magnatism & the Things We THINK We Know About It! By Austin D. Ritchie Magnatism is a wonderous natural phenomanon. Since days before scientific discoveries were even written down the world has been playing with the theories of magnatism. In these three labs we delt with some of the same ideas which have pondered over for long before any of us were around. In these conclusions we will take a look at these ideas and find out what exactly we have learned. To understand the results of the lab we mu
Memory Memory is the vital tool in learning and thinking . We all use memory in our everyday lives. Think about the first time you ever tied your shoe laces or rode a bike; those are all forms of memory , long term or short. If you do not remember anything from the past , you would never learn; thus unable to process. Without memory you would simply be exposed to new and unfamiliar things . Life would be absent and bare of the richness of it happy or sorrow. Many scientists are still unsure of a
Newton\'s First Law of Motion Sir Isaac Newton was in my mind one of the greatest people who ever lived. He was born in 1642 and died in 1727. He formulated three laws of motion that help explain some very important principles of physics. Some of Newton\'s laws could only be proved under certain conditions; actual observations and experiments made sure that they are true. Newton\'s laws tell us how objects move by describing the relationship between force and motion. I am going to try to explain
Newton\'s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravity if one of the four fundamental forces in the universe. Though the fundamental principles of it eluded scientists until Sir Isaac Newton was able to mathematically describe it in 1687 (Eddington 93). Gravity plays a serious part in everyday actions as it keeps everything on the ground; without gravity everything would be immobile unless a force was applied (then it would move infinitely because there would be no force to stop it). Perhaps, the best p
Newton\'s Method: A Computer Project Newton\'s Method is used to find the root of an equation provided that the function f[x] is equal to zero. Newton Method is an equation created before the days of calculators and was used to find approximate roots to numbers. The roots of the function are where the function crosses the x axis. The basic principle behind Newton\'s Method is that the root can be found by subtracting the function divided by its derivative from the initial guess of the root. Newt
Nikola Tesla Few people recognize his name today, and even among those who do, the words Nikola Tesla are likly to summon up the image of a crackpot rather than an authentic scientist. Nikola Tesla was possibly the greatest inventor the world has ever known. He was, without doubt, a genius who is not only credited with many devices we use today, but is also credited with astonishing, sometimes world-transforming, devices that are even simply amazing by todays scientific standards. Tesla was born
Nuclear Energy During the twentieth century scientists have discovered how to unleash the most powerful energy of all; Nuclear energy. The study of nuclear energy began for the same reasons that most scientific studies are begun; to understand more about the universe and the laws by which the universe works. The more knowledge we have about the universe, the more we can control the world in which we live. Nuclear energy is contained in the center, or nucleus of an atom. This energy is also known
Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy-This is energy that binds together components of an atomic nucleus. This is made by the process of nuclear fission. Nuclear fission is produced when an atomic atom is split. The way nuclear pore is made is in a nuclear reactor, this is most likely located in a nuclear power plant. the fission that is produced is when a heavy element splits in half or is halved into two smaller nuclei, the power of the fission is located by the rate of the splitting of the nuclei at
Nuclear Power Producing energy from a nuclear power plant is very complicated. The process of nuclear energy involves the fission of atoms, the release of energy from fission as heat, and the transfer of heat to electricity in power plants. The process of splitting the atom is called nuclear fission. Fission can take place in many different kinds of atoms. This explanation uses Uranium - 235, the atom most commonly used in nuclear reactors. The Uranium atom has many protons, thus making it unsta
Flourescence In-situ Hybridisation and Its Advantages Flourescence in-situ hybridisation is a great advancement in technology because there are fewer chances of a miscarriage, the parents receive faster results, and the tests are easier to do. In the future, FISH will be able to decrease the chances of a miscarriage by using samples of maternal blood instead of amniotic fluid. The problem with amniocentesis is it uses a hollow needle to take fluid from the mother\'s uterus. The needle could dama
Nuclear Energy: Uranium Fission Thousands of years ago human beings learned to make fire. By collecting and burning wood they were able to warm themselves, cook food, and manufacture primitive tools. Later, the Egyptians discovered the principal of the sail. Even more recent was the invention of the water wheel. All of these activities utilize various forms of energy-biological, chemical, solar, and hydraulic. Energy, the ability to do work, is essential for meeting basic human needs, extending
Nuclear Power and Its Uses At first nuclear power was only seen as a means of destruction but after World War II a major effort was made to apply nuclear energy to peacetime uses. Nuclear power if made when a nucleus of an atom is split to release a powerful burst of energy. Though technological advancements nuclear power now supplies us with new medical aids, a new power source and new ways to do scientific research. New medical advancements are being produced rapidly due to nuclear power. Nucl
Pre-Eclampsia and Eclampsia Disorders In Pregnant Women Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are disorders in pregnant women. Pre- eclampsia is hypertension and eclampsia is the worsening of pre-eclampsia where the woman experiences convulsions or goes into a coma. The complication of eclampsia in a pregnant woman can put her and her unborn child at risk. A risk that may be fatal. This is only to briefly define the disorders. Furthermore, I predict that women who have suffered from eclampsia do need futu
Radio: A Form of Communication Physics Idoh Gersten Mr. Zambizi Physics March 12, 1995 Radio is a form of communication in which intelligence is transmitted without wires from one point to another by means of electromagnetic waves. Early forms of communication over great distances were the telephone and the telegraph. They required wires between the sender and receiver. Radio, on the other hand, requires no such physical connection. It relies on the radiation of energy from a transmitting antenn
Resonance RESONANCE: " The property whereby any vibratory system responds with maximum amplitude to an applied force having the a frequency equal to its own." In english, this means that any solid object that is struck with a sound wave of equal sound wave vibrations will amplitude the given tone. This would explain the reason why some singers are able to break wine glasses with their voice. The vibrations build up enough to shatter the glass. This is called RESONANCE. Resonance can be observed
Wind Chimes Wind chimes produce clear, pure tones when struck by a mallet or suspended clapper. A wind chime usually consists of a set of individual alloy rods, tuned by length to a series of intervals considered pleasant. These are suspended from a devised frame in such a way that a centrally suspended clapper can reach and impact all the rods. When the wind blows, the clapper is set in motion and randomly strikes one or more of the suspended rods-- causing the rod to vibrate and emit a tone. T
Nuclear Waste Disposal At Yucca Mountain: Right or Wrong? As the United States\' nuclear waste buildup becomes larger, the need for a permanent storage facility becomes more urgent. One proposed site is in the Yucca Mountains of Nevada. This makes many Nevadans uneasy, as visions of three-legged babies and phosphorescent people come to mind. This is an unfounded worry, as many reasons prove. In fact, the Yucca Mountains provide an ideal site for a permanent underground nuclear waste facility in
Simple Machines Definitions: Machine- A device that makes work easier by changing the speed , direction, or amount of a force. Simple Machine- A device that performs work with only one movement. Simple machines include lever, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, and wedge. Ideal Mechanical Advantage (IMA)- A machine in which work in equals work out; such a machine would be frictionless and a 100% efficient IMA= De/Dr Actual Mechanical Advantage (AMA)- It is pretty much the opposite of IMA mean
Solar Cells Solar cells today are mostly made of silicon, one of the most common elements on Earth. The crystalline silicon solar cell was one of the first types to be developed and it is still the most common type in use today. They do not pollute the atmosphere and they leave behind no harmful waste products. Photovoltaic cells work effectively even in cloudy weather and unlike solar heaters, are more efficient at low temperatures. They do their job silently and there are no moving parts to we
Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION.........................................................1 Chapter I. General Principles........................................2 I. Systems of Force.........................................4 II. Stress..................................................6 III. Properties of Material.................................7 IV. Bolted and Welded Joints................................10 V. Beams -- A Practical Application........................
Reversing The Aging Process, Should We? In the length of time measured as human lifetime one can expect to see a full range of differing events. It is assumed that during a lifetime a person will experience every possible different emotion. If one is particularly lucky, he will bear witness to, or affect some momentous change in humanity. However is it reasonable to ask what would be experienced by someone who lived two lifetimes? Up until recently the previous question would and could only be r
Steam Turbines The invention of the water turbine was so successful that eventually, the idea came about for extracting power from steam. Steam has one great advantage over water-it expands in volume with tremendous velocity. To be the most effective, a steam turbine must run at a very high speed. No wheel made can revolve at any speed approaching the velocity that a steam turbine can. By utilizing the kinetic energy of steam flow, the turbine could achieve a higher efficiency. As a result, the
Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) will be a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescopemounted in a Boeing 747, to be used for many advanced astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. The Observatory will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments, with in-flight accessibility, provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Observatory obj