The Circulatory System The circulatory system in anatomy and physiology is the course taken by the blood through the arteries, capillaries, and veins and back to the heart. In humans and the higher vertebrates, the heart is made up of four chambers the right and left auricles, or atria, and the right and left ventricles. The right side of the heart pumps oxygen-poor blood from the cells of the body back to the lungs for new oxygen; the left side of the heart receives blood rich in oxygen from th
Clinical Chemistry Tests In Medicine Of the diagnostic methods available to veterinarians, the clinical chemistry test has developed into a valuable aid for localizing pathologic conditions. This test is actually a collection of specially selected individual tests. With just a small amount of whole blood or serum, many body systems can be analyzed. Some of the more common screenings give information about the function of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas and about muscle and bone disease. There a
Cloning of Animals On Sunday, February 23, 1997, Scottish researchers broke one of nature\'s greatest laws by cloning a lamb from a single cell of an adult ewe. This breakthrough opens the door to the possibility for the cloning of other mammals including humans. This remarkable achievement is being looked at as a great advancement in animal agriculture. But this achievement could lead to ethical questions of standard. Researchers lead by Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotlan
Cloning Today A clone is a group of organisms that are genetically identical. Most clones result from asexual reproduction, a process in which a new organism develops from only one parent. The one process of cloning, called nuclear transfer, replaces the nucleus of an immature egg with a nucleus from another cell. Most of the work with clones is done from cultures. An embryo has about thirty or forty usable cells but a culture features an almost endless supply. When the nucleus has been inserted
Cloning A few years ago if you were to ask someone about the possibilities of cloning they would most likely say it was impossible. This attitude towards cloning has been held into belief up until recently when scientists in Scotland cloned a sheep. And immediately after scientists in Oregon cloned a monkey (Fackelmann 276). The most major breakthroughs of the century in science has occurred and we are not ready for it. The scientific breakthrough of cloning has caused a great deal of controvers
Creationism vs Evolution: Through The Eyes of Jay Gould It has been over 100 years since English naturalist Charles Darwin first told the world his revolutionary concept about how livings things develop. Evolution through natural selection and adaptation was the basis of his argument as it remains to this day a debated subject by many. Across this nation, a "return" to "traditional" values has also brought the return of age old debated topics. One issue that truly separates Americans is the issu
Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease i
Design of a Psychological Experiment Psyc 100 (0110-0129) Fall, 1996 Dr. Sternheim Report #1 (10 points) Problem: Suppose you are a psychologist who is interested in the effects of caffeine on the eye-hand coordination of students enrolled at UMCP. Design an experiment to test the hypothesis that caffeine enhances a student\'s ability to hit a baseball. Describe your experiment by answering the following questions: 1) What are the independent and dependent variables? The independent variable wou
The Beginning Of Time There was a period in history when the beginning of the world in which we live in was a expressed through legends and myths, now, through the use of increasingly advanced scientific equipment we can see that the universe is more vast and complex than ever imaginable. The purpose of this paper is to bring light to some of the modern beliefs regarding the origin of the universe by answering a series of questions. What are the commonly excepted theories of the evolution of the
Detection of Biological Molecules Introduction: Without carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen and phosphorus, life wouldn\'t exist. These are the most abundant elements in living organisms. These elements are held together by covalent bonds, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds. Covalent bonds are especially strong, thus, are present in monomers, the building blocks of life. These monomers combine to make polymers, which is a long chain of monomers strung together. Biological mo
Development of the Human Zygote November 16, 1995 Hundreds of thousands of times a year a single-celled zygote, smaller than a grain of sand, transforms into an amazingly complex network of cells, a newborn infant. Through cellular differentiation and growth, this process is completed with precision time and time again, but very rarely a mistake in the "blueprint" of growth and development does occur. Following is a description of how the pathways of this intricate web are followed and the mista
Diabetes Diabetes is a disease in which your body is unable to properly use and store glucose. Glucose backs up in the bloodstream causing your blood glucose or "sugar" to rise too high. There are two major types of diabetes, Type I and Type II. In Type I diabetes, your body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that lets your body use glucose found in foods for energy. People with Type I diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive. This form of diabetes usually develops i
The Necessity Of Computer Security When the first electronic computers emerged from university and military laboratories in the late 1940s and early 1950s, visionaries proclaimed them the harbingers of a second industrial revolution that would transform business, government and industry. But few laymen, even if they were aware of the machines, could see the connection. Experts too, were sceptical. Not only were computers huge, expensive, one-of-a-kind devices designed for performing abstruse sci
Tourette\'s Disorder Table of Contents Tourette Syndrome And Other Tic Disorders Definitions of Tic Disorders Differential Diagnosis Symptomatology Associated Behaviors and Cognitive Difficulties Etiology Stimulant Medications Epidemiology and Genetics Non-Genetic Contributions Clinical Assessment Of Tourette Syndrome Treatment Of Tourette Syndrome Monitoring Reassurance Pharmacological Treatment of Tourette Syndrome Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Family Treatment Genetic Counseling Academic and Oc
Differences and Effects of Natural and Synthetic Fertilizers At the core of the growth and germination of plants lie the nutrients they receive from the soil. The nutrients required for growth are classified into two groupings, macronutirents and micronutrients. Macronutrients are those that are needed in very large amounts, and whose absence can do a great harm to the development of the plant life. These nutrients include calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and are very sparse in most
The Digestive Track The BIG MAC is placed in the mouth. The bread is mainly starch, the special sauce is mainly fat, lettuce, pickles, and onions are niacin. The beef patties are protein,and cheeseis a form of calcium, fat, and protein. The piece of the BIG MAC is placed in the mouth and chewed, the starch is being digested by saliva. The starch becomes a kind of sugar which is used as a nourishment for the cells. Saliva changes food to a form that can be used by the body called enzymes. The bur
Discovering Sicke Cell Anemia The topic that I am learning about is Sickle Cell Anemia, a hereditary disease which affects red blood cells. Throughout this research paper, I will discuss what exactly it is, how it is caused, any known treatments or cures, and many other facts that are important in this disease. Sickle Cell Anemia is a health problem throughout the world. More than 250,000 babies are born worldwide with this inherited blood cell disorder (
Diseases: Sex Linked and Sex Influenced by Richard Nixon Honors Biology Mrs. Linda December 19, 1994 There are thousands of cases of sex linked and sex influenced diseases worldwide. These diseases can range from a social inconvenience, to a fatal ailment. In sex linked diseases, like Muscular Dystrophy, hemophilia and color blindness, only males are affected. When a man infected with a sex linked disease has children, all his sons are normal, but all of his daughters are carriers. When a carrie
Diverrsity of Plants Plants evolved more than 430 million years ago from multicellular green algae. By 300 million years ago, trees had evolved and formed forests, within which the diversification of vertebrates, insects, and fungi occurred. Roughly 266,000 species of plants are now living. The two major groups of plants are the bryophytes and the vascular plants; the latter group consists of nine divisions that have living members. Bryophytes and ferns require free water so that sperm can swim
DNA: The Making Lyle Sykes For more than 50 years after the science of genetics was established and the patterns of inheritance through genes were clarified, the largest questions remained unanswered: How are the chromosomes and their genes copied so exactly from cell to cell, and how do they direct the structure and behavior of living things? This paper will discuss those questions and the people that answered them. Two American geneticists, George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum, provided
Apollo 4 Introduction This paper is going to compare the Apollo 1 and the Challenger disasters. Both space programs were unfortunate disasters, caused by a series of oversights and misjudgments. How did this lost of life occur in such a high tech environment? Apollo 4 On January 27, 1967, the three astronauts of the Apollo 4, were doing a test countdown on the launch pad. Gus Grissom was in charge. His crew were Edward H. White, the first American to walk in space, and Roger B. Chaffee, a naval
The Big Bang It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big
DNA and Crime Deoxyribonucleic Acid - the fingerprint of life also know as DNA was first mapped out in the early 1950ís by British biophysicist, Francis Harry Compton Crick and American biochemist James Dewey Watson. They determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA, the substance that passes on the genetic characteristics from one generation to the next. DNA is found in the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. "Every family line has itís own unique pattern of restriction-enzyme DNA fragme
DNA After staying on the plant Earth reaching the human genetic technology, I have come up with this report the four things I am going to talk about in this report are: 1) What is the chemical basis of the plant Earth 2) What do human mean by "genetic technology" and how is it possible 3) How have human used this technology 4) Are humans concerned about this technology 1)The chemical basis of the plant earth is deoxyribonucleic acid (generally shortened to DNA), it has the shape of a long twiste
Dolphins Dolphins are mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. Dolphins have a powerful and streamlined body. They are found in all seas and oceans. Dolphins can be told apart from porpoises by their nose, which is beaklike, and also their conical teeth. Porpoises have a flatter nose, sharper teeth, and a more solid body. There are 32 known species of dolphins. The bottle-nosed dolphin is often the species used in aquatic shows. The common dolphin inspired many Mediterranean folk lores.
Down Syndrome: An Informative Essay Down Syndrome is the name for babies born with a disorder related to their chromosomes. It is caused when meiosis occurs and an error occurs in the cells development. The reason for this defect is often because the parent is over 40 or for some other reason their meiosis is not "Up to par." The actual defect is an extra chromosome is developed during cell development. The abnormal development results in 47 chromosomes rather than the usual 46 (23 from each par
No-Calorie Powder May Substitute for Food\'s Fat George E. Inglett of the U.S. Department of Agriculture\'s Biopolymer Research Unit in Peoria III invented a no-calorie fat substitute called Z-Trim. It is a mix of crushed fibers made from the hulls of grains. It can replace the fat and some of the carbohydrates in foods such as chocolates, brownies, cheese, and ground beef. He spent three years trying to perfect Z-Trim to be smooth because he made it out of tough hulls of corn, oats, and rice. H
Ebola March 1, 1996 Imagine going on vacation to a foreign country and when you come home you are horribly sick. Your head hurts, you have a highfever, and you start vomiting. Chances are that you may havecontracted the Ebola virus. Ebola was first discovered in the village of Yambuku(1) nearthe Ebola River in Zaire. Since its discovery, there have beenfour outbreaks of this disease. There are three known strains, ofvariations of ebola. There is no known cure for this disease(2).Ebola has become
Eczema WHAT IS ECZEMA? Eczema is a category of skin disease that is characterized by inflammation, itching, dry scaly skin, and in severe cases, small fluid filled blisters and insomnia. It is the most common skin disease in children today. Mild cases of Eczema are a little worse than a tendency toward dry, itching skin. Severe cases can effect the whole body, can be intensely itchy, uncomfortable, and even have an effect on the person in a psychological manner due to self- consciousness. Eczema
Salt Pollution As awareness for pollution increases, other forms of pollution are defined. Almost everyone knows about toxic waste and carbon dioxide pollution, but not many people have heard of salt pollution. Salt pollution has been on the increase since the evolution of the automobile. With more pressure on government agencies to keep the highway clear and safe, an increase in the use of salt has developed. It is important to understand why salt is used and how it work as well as the environm
Effects of Asperguillus Aspergillus spp. is a type of fungus that forms spores. It is normally found in soil, water, and decaying vegetation. In the hospital environment, the spores settle in some part of the ventilation system. Spores are also stirred up from construction and renovation. Additional sources of the fungal spores could be contaminated or wet wood, bird droppings in air ducts, or decaying fireproofing materials. The fungus causes pneumonia in a host with a weak or otherwise comprom
The Effects of Foreign Species Introduction On An Ecosystem The effects of foreign species introduction into an ecosystem are very profound. From small microorganisms to species of large mammals, many foreign species introductions occur every day. New implications of their introduction are found just as often. When a foreign species is introduced into an ecosystem, often the ecosystem contains no natural predators for the new species. This lack of predators sometimes leads to; in conjunction wit
The Big Bang It is always a mystery about how the universe began, whether if and when it will end. Astronomers construct hypotheses called cosmological models that try to find the answer. There are two types of models: Big Bang and Steady State. However, through many observational evidences, the Big Bang theory can best explain the creation of the universe. The Big Bang model postulates that about 15 to 20 billion years ago, the universe violently exploded into being, in an event called the Big
Evolution From A Molecular Perspective Introduction: Why globular evolution? Evolution has been a heavily debated issue since Charles Darwin first documented the theory in 1859. However, until just recently, adaptation at a molecular level has been overlooked except by the scientific world. Now with the help of modern technology, the protein sequences of nearly every known living thing have either been established or are in the process of establishment, and are widely accessible via the internet
Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it\'s membrane, tiny ce
Essay on Evolution There are many mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change. One of the most important mechanism in evolution is natural selection which is the differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Natural selection occurs when a environment makes a individual adapt to that certain environment by variations that arise by mutation and genetic recombination. Also it favors certain traits in a individua
Excretion and Elimination of Toxicants and their Metabolites The first topic that was covered by this chapter was the excretion of wastes by the Renal system. The first step that occurs in the kidney deals with the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. In the glomerulus the formation of urine begins with the passive filtration of plasma through the pores that are found in the glomerulus. The plasma is forced through these pores by hydrostatic pressure. The only things that determi
Wind Tunnels In this report I will talk about the wind tunnel. I will described what they are used for. The different types of wind tunnels from the slow speed subsonic to the high speed hypersonic tunnels. I will also give A few examples of the wind tunnels used today. The wind tunnel is a device used by many people, from High school students to NASA engineers. The wind tunnel is a device used to test planes to see how well it will do under certain conditions. The plane maybe as big as a full s
Albert Einstein and His Theories Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), German-born American physicist and Nobel laureate, best known as the creator of the special and general theories of relativity and for his bold hypothesis concerning the particle nature of light. He is perhaps the most well-known scientist of the 20th century. Einstein was born in Ulm on March 14, 1879, and spent his youth in Munich, where his family owned a small shop that manufactured electric machinery. He did not talk until the a
Albert Einstein Einstein was a German/American physicist who contributed more to the 20th century vision of physical reality than any other scientist. Einstein\'s theory of RELATIVITY seemed to a lot of people to be pure human thought, as did his other theories. LIFE Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Einstein\'s parents were nonobservant Jews. They moved to Munich from Ulm when Einstein was an infant. The family business was to manufacture electrical equipment. When th
Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born in Germany on March 14, 1879.As a kid he had trouble learning to speak. His parents thought that he might be mentally retarded. He was not smart in school. He suffered under the learning methods that they used in the schools of Germany at that time so he was never able to finish his studies. In 1894 his father\'s business had failed and the family moved to Milan, Italy. Einstein who had grown interested in science, went to Zurich, Switzerland, to enter a
Aspirin Andrew Donehoo January 15, 1997 Aspirin is a white crystalline substance made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It is used in the treatment of rheumatic fever, headaches, neuralgia, colds, and arthritis; reduce temperature and pain. The formula for aspirin is CH3CO2C6H4CO2H. Aspirin\'s scientific name is actylsalicylic acid (ASA). The main ingredient in ASA is salicylic acid. This ingredient grows in small roots, leaves, flowers and fruits on plants. About 100 years ago, a German chemist,
Extinction of Dinosaurs Ryan Humphries Biology 6th Period Two-hundred and thirty million years ago the first dinosaur-like creature roamed the earth. Within five million years it could be considered a dinosaur. They were soon at the top of the food chain. They populated every continent. Then 65 million years ago they vanished. The most powerful creatures ever to live on earth had become extinct. Dinosaurs were not the only victims of this "mass extinction." There were many other species that wer
A Technical Analysis of Ergonomics and Human Factors in Modern Flight Deck Design I. Introduction Since the dawn of the aviation era, cockpit design has become increasingly complicated owing to the advent of new technologies enabling aircraft to fly farther and faster more efficiently than ever before. With greater workloads imposed on pilots as fleets modernize, the reality of he or she exceeding the workload limit has become manifest. Because of the unpredictable nature of man, this problem is
Beam Me Up Scotty: Teleportation Some people think that teleportation is not possible, while other people think that it is, and they are doing it. The idea behind teleportation is that an object is equivalent to the information needed to construct it, the object can then be transported by transmitting the information in bytes,(1 byte= 1 yes or no answer) along a channel of telecommunications-communications, on the other end of the line is a receiver that reconstructs the object using the informa
B E C: The New Phase of Matter A new phase of matter has been discovered seventy years after Albert Einstein predicted it\'s existence. In this new state of matter, atoms do not move around like they would in an ordinary gas condensate. The atoms move in lock step with one another and have identical quantum properties. This will make it easier for physicists to research the mysterious properties of quantum mechanics. It was named "Molecule of the Year" because it was such a major discovery, but
Black Holes Every day we look out upon the night sky, wondering and dreaming of what lies beyond our planet. The universe that we live in is so diverse and unique, and it interests us to learn about all the variance that lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of wonders, our universe holds a mystery that is very difficult to understand because of the complications that arise when trying to examine and explore the principles of space. That mystery happens to be that of the ever elusive, black
Carbon Without the element of carbon, life as we know it would not exist. Carbon provides the framework for all tissues of plants and animals. They are built of elements grouped around chains or rings made of carbon atoms. Carbon also provides common fuels--coal, oil, gasoline, and natural gas. Sugar, starch, and paper are compounds of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen. Proteins such as hair, meat, and silk contain these and other elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More than six an
Charles Babbage Charles Babbage may have spent his life in vain, trying to make a machine considered by most of his friends to be ridiculous. 150 years ago, Babbage drew hundreds of drawings projecting the fundamentals on which today\'s computers are founded. But the technology was not there to meet his dreams. He was born on December 26, 1791, in Totnes, Devonshire, England. As a child he was always interested about the mechanics of everything and in the supernatural. He reportedly once tried t