Prenatal Diagnosis: Heredity Disorders, Other Biochemical Diseases, and Disfiguring Birth Defects There are over 250 recognized sex-linked diseases, affecting every organ system. Of these, 95% affect males, (Emery, 1968). Despite these many sex- linked diseases, at present prenatal diagnosis can specifically be made in fewer than 40 diseases. (Emery, 1968). These sex-linked diseases are individual rare and some are named after physicians who described them, for example, Hemophilia A and B, Duche
Knowledge of Information DESCRIPTION OF THE CASE: Ralph is a recent widower in his midi-60\'s, who was diagnosed with metatastasized colon cancer. He is a home health agency patient, and his primary caregivers are his two daughters. Ralph is unaware of the severity of his condition and wanted to know what his state of health and prognosis were. The nurse evaded his questions initially, and his daughters did not want to tell him that his cancer was terminal. The nurse\'s position was not to conti
Prozac: Mania "Yeah, I\'m on Prozac," I hear quite often, said as if the speaker had just received a new Porsche. I often do catch myself responding with, "I\'m on Zoloft isn\'t modern medicine great?" In a way, this exchange is a way of bonding. In another, more twisted way, it is a way of receiving a stamp of approval from my peers, for antidepressants have become extremely widespread and widely accepted. "Prozac...has entered pop culture...becoming the stuff of cartoons and stand-up comedy ro
Quackery This year, we Americans will spend billions of dollars on products that do nothing for us - or may even harm us. And we\'ll do it for the same reason people have done it since ancient times... We want to believe in miracles. We want to find simple solutions and shortcuts to better health. It\'s hard to resist. All of us, at one time or another, have seen or heard about a product - a new and exotic pill, a device, or potion - that can easily solve our most vexing problem. With this produ
Reye Syndrome Reye Syndrome is an extremely rare, non-contagious disease thought to be triggered by aspirin use. The actual origin of the disease is unknown. Reye\'s Syndrome, occasionally called Reye-Jacobsen\'s Syndrome, is known to follow any viral infection. Two of the most common viral infections it precedes is influenza, “the flu”, and chicken pox. A now-familiar warning on bottles of aspirin, most notably Tylenol, is not to give Tylenol to a child who is recovering from the chicken pox, a
Baseball Central Michigan University baseball is one of the finest in the state of Michigan. Baseball players at C.M.U. are dedicated to being the best on and off the field. I had the privilege of working baseball for my first PES 283 rotation, and I think I will never forget it for the rest of my life. Coach Kriener demands the athletes to be the best students-athletes that they can be. I believe this is one reason no senior has graduated in twenty years without winning a ring. He teaches them
Safe Sex vs. Unsafe Sex The "sexual revolution" of the 1960\'s has been stopped dead in its tracks by the AIDS epidemic. The danger of contracting AIDS is so real now that it has massively affected the behavior of both gay and straight folks who formerly had elected to lead an active sexual life that included numerous new sexual contacts. The safest option regarding AIDS and sex is total abstinence from all sexual contact. For those who prefer to indulge in sexual contact, this is often far too
Schitzophrenia, Childhood, Mental, Anxiety and Other Disorders By: Michael Dugger and Amanda Peachrin Mental Disorders The term mental disorder means psycological and behavioral syndromes that deviate signicantly from those typical of human beings enjoying good mental health. All that mumbo jumbo means that a person with a mental disorder was a few cards short of a full deck. This is probably not the persons fault that they are like this they were just born this way. These people are not all a l
Schizophrenia During the 1950s, mentally disordered people who were harmful to society and themselves could be treated with medications and were able to return safely to their communities. During the 1980s, the cost of health care increased more than any other cost in our national economy. As a result, strategic planning has been made to reduce costs. “The political decision made to deinstitutionalize chronic mental patients started with the appearance of phenothiazine medications. Dramatically
Schizophrenia "In my senior year of high school, I began to experience personality changes. I did not realize the significance of the changes at the time, and I think others denied them, but looking back I can see that they were the earliest signs of illness. I became increasingly withdrawn and sullen. I felt alienated and lonely and hated everyone. I felt as if there were a huge gap between me and the rest of the world; everybody seemed so distant from me." This excerpt describes part of Esse L
Schizophrenia: Explained and Treatments Jeffrey A. Hurt Professor Leary Abnormal Psychology 203 2 May 1996 Schizophrenia is a devastating brain disorder affecting people worldwide of all ages, races, and economic levels. It causes personality disintegration and loss of contact with reality (Sinclair). It is the most common psychosis and it is estimated that one percent of the U.S. population will be diagnosed with it over the course of their lives (Torrey 2). Recognition of this disease dates ba
Schizophrenia WHAT IS SCHIZOPHRENIA? What does the term schizophrenia mean? In its most elementary sense, we might say that schizophrenia is a disease, invented by Eugene Bleeder. Eugene Bleeder was one of the most influential psychiatrists of his time. He is best known today for his introduction of the term schizophrenia, previously known as dementia praecox. In actuality, schizophrenia is often used generically and inappropriately as it is often applied to almost any kind of unusual behavior o
Sexual Transmitted Diseases Defined TABLE OF CONTENTS I . Sexually transmitted diseaeses defined II. Genital Herpes III. Vaginal Candidiasis IV. Chlamydia V. Prevention VI. Bibliography A sexually transmitted disease is not the same as genital disease. Most genital diseases are not caused by sexually transmitted organisms. But most sexually transmitted infections do involve the genitals. Infection of the rectum, throat, and the eye are also common. Alot of sexually transmitted diseases spread fr
Florida Should Legalize Euthanasia Florida should legalize euthanasia and I offer the following plan. The way Florida would legalize euthanasia should be by setting up a set of professional doctors who could examine all cases in which a person or an ill patients family request euthanasia due to extreme pain or an incurable disease. The doctors could examine these people and if they find there is no way other than the use of machines 24-hours a day to keep these people alive they will allow the d
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle Cell Anemia is a genetic disease that affects all kinds of people and can start before a person is even born. This paper will talk about symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia, the people affected, the cause of the disease, how the disease is diagnosed, and cured. Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia are pale skin, short of breath, easily tired, and whites of eyes turn yellow. Ethnic or special groups affected with Sickle Cell Anemia are mostly blacks, and Hispanics of Caribbean ance
Skin Cancer Gone are the days when people sent children outside to play to get a little color in their cheeks. They know too much about the dangers of unprotected sun exposure and the threat of skin cancer. Or do they? Despite the fact that 58% of parents remembered hearing about the importance of protecting their children from the sun, children are still playing in the sun without sunscreen or protective clothing (3., p 1). Sunburn is the most preventable risk factor of skin cancer. Skin type a
Sleeping Disorders I am going to start by telling you what a sleeping disorder is. A sleeping disorder is a problem that affects something to do with sleep. Not all sleeping disorders have symptoms that are obvious to a person or their family and friends, here are some common sleep disorders. - Insomnia - Sleep Apnea - Narcolepsy - Restless Leg Syndrome - Parasomnia - Bruxism - Jet Lag - Shiftwork I will be discussing the sleeping disorders listed above and what symptoms they can cause. Insomnia
Small Pox Small pox, which was once the most feared disease known by mankind started out in the days of Christopher Columbus. The disease set out to change the lives of the people in the worse way. It became known as an epidemic disease that ended up killing hundreds of people. Small pox started out in Hispaniola and because of no cure, it traveled to the island of Puerto Rico, and then Cuba. It was only a matter of time until it spread to the mainland, somewhere in America. In the Middle Ages,
Smoking Studies of ex-smokers show that their risk of dying from smoking-related disease decreases with each year of non smoking. Encouraged by such evidence, more than 40 million people in the U.S. quit smoking in the year following the 1964 surgeon general\'s report. The proportion of males who smoke decreased from more than 60 percent to about 25 percent; however, the percentage of women who smoke cigarettes increased. Smoking also became more prevalent among young adults, with about 29 perce
Smoking Tobacco Drugs are generally recognized as of the greatest problems in the United States. According to the statistics, tobacco has the highest death rate. Smoking is a very popular habit, even though we all know that smoking is very dangerous. Millions of people around the globe want to quit smoking for medical reasons such as having already two heart-valve replacement surgeries. Wht did some people do to quit smoking? Some people substituted eating ice-cream for smoking. Why is smoking a
Steroids "I just wanted to boost my performance." These are the words spoken by numerous athletes who have been captured using steroids. The continuous stress and pressure on athletes to perform well has caused some to breakdown and take steroids as an easy way to bulk up. Steroids amongst athletes is not the only problem. Other reasons for taking steroids may be to heal injury, improve appearance, or for various social factors. High School is definitely tough on self-esteem for teenagers who lo
Stress CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Research Problem How do you cope with stress in the workplace to achieve a more balanced lifestyle? Stress is a part of everybody\'s life. Depending on the level of stress, it can control our lives, especially in the workplace. We begin to spend several long hours at work, and thus have less time for other things. Stressed employees may be unhappy and thus produce nominally. Stress can deteriorate social and family relationships and eventually burn
Coping With Stress In An Organization 26 November 1994 Table of Contents I. Introduction II. Defining Stress III. Types of Stress IV. How to Handle Stress V. Recognizing Stress VI. The Military and Stress VII. Summary I. INTRODUCTION Since the beginning of mankind there has always been some kind of stress affecting how people feel, act and cope with situations. In this paper we will look at the definition of stress and what causes people to have stress. Then we will see how different people hand
Suicide The natural end of every human life is death. Some people, for reasons that have never been fully understood, choose to end their own lives. This is called suicide, which means literally "self-killing." For all the uncertainty that has surrounded the phenomenon of suicide, his assessment of the problem is probably as accurate as any. The individual, in seemingly hopeless conflict with the world, decides to end his or her existence in what amounts to a final assault against a society that
Color Blindless Color blindness is the inability to distinguish particular colors. It is generally an inherited trait, but can result from a chemical imbalance or eye injury. There are three primary colors. They are red, blue, and yellow. All other colors are the results of different combinations of primary colors. Special visual cells, called cones, are respon-sible for our ability to see color. People with normal vision have three different types of cones, each responsible for a different prim
Teenage Suicide Suicide is intentional self-inflicted acts that end in death("Suicide," Compton\'s). After a series of traumatic events, normal coping abilities can be pushed over the edge; the result may be suicide. In each year, an average of 30,000 suicide deaths occur in the United States. It is estimated that 5,000 of those suicides are committed by teenagers(SAVE, 2). One major reason that the suicide rate among teenagers is so high, is that the teenage years are a period of commotion. New
Superdads A long time ago, way back in the 1950\'s, there was a cold, icy creature known as the "fifties father." He rarely displayed affection, and he hid most of his feelings behind the newspaper. Most of the child-rearing duties were left to mom. We can kiss those days good-bye! In Western cultures there is an increasing number of men who are extremely active in all stages of raising their children. The old "fifties father" is now becoming the "nineties nanny." These modern "superdads", as we
Teens and Smoking Abstract Cigarette smoking is of interest to the National Institute on Drug Abuse both because of the public health problems associated with this form of substance abuse and because this behavior represents a prototypic dependence process. In the past few years the government has made every effort to reach the masses, in an attempt to curb the exploitation of tobbacco use, and its acceptance among Americas Youngsters. However, cigarette smoking among adolescents is on the rise.
Teen Smoking Due to peer pressure, propaganda and availability, teenage smoking has been on the rise since 1986. Three thousand children start using tobacco each day because of the negative influences aimed toward them. Our President and the American Medical Association have taken action and have urged tobacco companies to do the same against under age smoking. Despite all positive actions against it, "pack-a-day" smoking has risen thirty-three Percent in the past ten years among high school sen
Hills Like White Elephants: Jig Everyday people make decisions that affect their future lives. Do people make the right decisions? What makes a decision a right one? What may be right to some, may be wrong to others. There are no right or wrong decisions but those that people choose and believe to be right varying from each individual. In Hemingway\'s realistic story, Hills Like White Elephants, Jig attempts to make a crucial change in her life by making the right decision, but is unable to beca
The Differences and Similarities of Pneumonia and Tuberculosis Pneumonia and tuberculosis have been plaguing the citizens of the world for centuries causing millions of deaths. This occurred until the creation and use of antibiotics become more widely available. These two respiratory infections have many differences, which include their etiology, incidence and prevalence, and many similarities in their objective and subject indicators, medical interventions, course, rehabilitation and effects. T
The Effects of Anabolic Steroids You\'ve seen them, and you thought you knew what was going on. The muscle-heads at the gym, the all-star basketball player, the amazing offensive tackle, and the lightning fast swimmer. All of them used steroids, and you knew it. They were all unnaturally strong, and looked like gods. But what you could not see is the terrible side effects which come through the use of anabolic steroids. These powerful drugs have both positive and negative results from their use.
The Heart Introduction You need your heart for all your body needs. It pumps about 2000 gallons of blood a day. It takes about 20 seconds for blood to reach every cell in the body. An artery carries blood out from the heart. A vein carries blood back to the heart. An average adult heart weighs about 10-13 ounces (300 to 350 grams). The rate which the heart pumps varies depending on what your doing. When at rest the heart pumps more slowly. When you run the heart rate increases to provide muscles
The Hormones and Development of One\'s Sex The objectives of this article as I saw them were, (1) to show how fetal gonads acquire the ability to function as endocrine organs, and (2), to show the mechanisms by which the endocrine secretions modulate male development. The researchers went through an extremely extensive explanation of the formation of the sexual phenotypes by detailing the development of germ cells. They explained how women\'s and men\'s gonads appear identical until Leydig cells
Ebola and Marburg Viruses The Ebola and Marburg viruses are extremely lethal viruses that have placed repugnant thoughts on the minds of many people that have any background knowledge on this field of viral infections. Where does it come from? Where does it hide? What could it do to me? As these questions burn holes in the minds of many people, something should be done to learn more about these horrendous viruses. People sometimes become scared stiff from the thought of the bone-chilling effects
Abstract from: Cloning : Where Do We Draw the Line? The first attempt in cloning was conducted in 1952 on a group of frogs. The experiment was a partial success. The frog cells were cloned into other living frogs however, only one in every thousand developed normally , all of which were sterile. The rest of the frogs that survived grew to abnormally large sizes. In 1993, scientist and director of the in vitro lab at George Washington University, Jerry Hall and associate Robert Stillman, reported
The Immune System The immune system is a group of cells, molecules, and tissues that help defend the body against diseases and other harmful invaders. The immune system provides protection against a variety of potentially damaging substances that can invade the body. These substances include disease-causing organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. The body\'s ability to resist these invaders is called immunity. A key feature of the immune system is its ability to destroy forei
The Nursing Home: A Nice Place for the Elderly A.) Security 1.)Curfews 2.)Lost faculties (No need to drive) 3.)Away from con-artists B.) Activities 1.)Entertainment/Songs (Brownies example) 2.)Activities/Crafts (Beta Club example) 3.)People of similar age C.)Health Care 1.)Takes stress off of the family 2.)Help with prescriptions and medicine 3.)In case of emergency... The Nursing Home: A Haven for the Elderly Today\'s nursing homes are excellent environments for our elderly. These establishment
The Pressure to be Perfect In today\'s competitive society, a person strives for perfection, due to the fact that so much emphasis is placed on one\'s outer appearance. No matter who we are or where we live, society puts this pressure upon us. We are typically faced with this pressure by models on television and in magazines. Companies seem to have targeted women more so than men. They usually use women with good looks and nice figures to advertise and market their product. When companies use th
Therapeutic Touch : Its Effectiveness On Surgical Incision Site Pain INTRODUCTION Therapeutic touch has been shown to decrease patients anxiety levels and increase their pain tolerance levels when other more mainstream therapies have not been completely effective. "Therapeutic touch is a process by which energy is transmitted from one person to another for the purpose of potentiating the healing process of one who is ill or injured." (Heidt, 1981; Krieger, 1979; Lionberger, 1985; Randolph, 1984;
The Roy Adaptation Model Roy began work on her theory in the 1960s. She drew from existing work of a physiological psychologist, and behavioral, systems and role theorists. She was keenly interested in the psycho/social aspects of the person from the start and concentrated her education on this aspect of Person. Thus, the language/thinking of psychology and sociology became second nature to her. The need for intense study of the language and ideas behind Roy\'s Adaptation Model is its biggest dr
The Safety of Blood A five-year old girl is riding down the street, on her way to her best friend\'s house. She doesn\'t have a care in the world and is quietly humming to herself. Suddenly a car whips around the corner and swerves to avoid the child, but he looses control and squarely hits the girl, causing the her to fall and get trapped between the car and her battered bicycle. A main artery in her leg has been severed and blood fills the gutter of the street. As she gets rushed to the hospit
Plagues and Diseases Plague. A word that has struck fear in the hearts of man since the earliest of times. It has also lead to some of the greatest historical events and stories of our time. The ancient cities of Rome and Athens, in their downfall, were finished off by pestilence. The Bubonic Plague, also known as The Black Death, devastated Europe in the 14th century, starting a new age. The great warrior Ivan the Terrible was stricken with disease, and driven mad. During the "exploration" of t
The Use of Merit Pay and Incentives The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of Merit Pay and Incentives as motivators for increased productivity. The key focus is the system at Richmond Memorial Hospital. To do so, one must begin at the beginning….. The use of financial incentives (financial rewards) paid to workers whose production exceeds some predetermined standard was popularized by Frederick Taylor in the late 1800s. As a supervisory employee of the Midvale Steel Company, he had bec
Tobacco Advertising and its Effects on Young People Ryan Sharp English 10 In this world there are many injustices that deal with our children. A main injustice is the advertising of tobacco directed to our youths. Every day 3,000 children start smoking, most of them between the ages of 10 and 18. These kids account for 90 percent of all new smokers. In fact, 90 percent of all adults state that they first start smoking as a teenager. The statistics clearly show that young people are the prime tar
Treating Diabetes with Transplanted Cells Seventy-five years ago the type of diabetes that affected children and young adults was lethal. In the 1990\'s investigators found that a hormone, that was produced in Islets of Langerhans, was not being produced in diabetes patients. This hormone, called insulin, enables other cells to take up sugar glucose from the blood for energy. Diabetes patients who were not making insulin had glucose from food accumulating in the blood while other tissues were st
Neptune Neptune is the outermost planet of the gas giants. It has an equatorial diameter of 49,500 kilometers (30,760 miles) and is the eighth planet from the sun. If Neptune were hollow, it could contain nearly 60 Earth\'s. Neptune orbits the Sun every 165 years. It has eight moons, six of which were found by Voyager 2. A day on Neptune is 16 hours and 6.7 minutes. Neptune was discovered on September 23, 1846 by Johann Gottfried Galle, of the Berlin Observatory. Neptune got its named from the R
Acid Rain Within this past century, acidity of the air and acid rain have become recognized as one of the leading threats to our planet’s environment. No longer limited by geographic boundaries, acid causing emissions are causing problems all over the world. Some laws have been passed which limit the amount of pollutants that are released into the air, but tougher legislation must be implemented before this problem can be overcome. Acid rain is produced, when automobiles, smelters, power plants,
Treating Anaphylaxix Research Paper Paramedic Procedures I - Fall 1996 11/3/96 In the emergency setting, anaphylaxis is a dangerous, life threatening condition that must be treated in an aggressive and timely fashion. Anaphylaxis is a condition related to acute allergic reactions. Following the body\'s exposure to the offending allergen, there are common systemic reactions. The most serious reactions involve the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, but the gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by a germ (bacterium) called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This germ primarily affects the lungs and may infect anyone at any age. In the United States, the number of TB cases steadily decreased until 1986 when an increase was noted; TB has continued to rise since. Today, ten million individuals are infected in the U.S., as evidenced by positive skin tests, with approximately 26,000 new cases of active disease each year. The increase i